the zulu kingdom and the colony of natal

The Zulu had not intended to attack then, as it was a new moon and it was considered unwise to fight on a 'dark day'. Zibhebhu, an arch opponent of Cetshwayo, whose allegiance was more to the colonial order than the royal house, occupied a large tract of territory to Cetshwayo's north, and forced uSuthu loyalists resident in his portion to return to Cetshwayo's area. In 1881 a harbour board was formed under the chairmanship of Harry Escombe. In the second half if the 19th Century, Indians came to South Africa in two categories, namely as indentured workers in 1860 and later as 'free' or 'passenger' Indians. As he proceeded over the ridge of the Mabaso heights he encountered, to his horror, the Zulu army, a mass of 20 000 strong below. Realising he was surrounded, Pulleine tried to retreat in order to save the endangered camp. The British first fought the Zulu kingdom in the Anglo-Zulu war, then the Boar republics in two Boer wars. At the end of 1843, there were not more than 500 Dutch families left in Natal. The Zulu were now on the back foot. Durnford to prevent the Zulus crossing the Tugela. Among its recommendations was the direct political representation of natives in the colonial legislatures on the New Zealand model, and the imposition of direct taxation upon natives, which should not be less than £ 1 a year payable by every adult male. In Natal, pressure mounted for the annexation of Zululand, and almost inevitably it was annexed to the Crown in 1887. Every European was bound to pay the tax. Large numbers of Natal Africans fought with the British against the Zulus, enabling the British to claim victory and, ultimately, to annex the Zulu kingdom. Under Chelmsford’s orders, the attacking force moved across the Batshe to attack a rocky gorge into which Sihayo's men had retreated, driving their cattle before them. John Colenso, appointed bishop of Natal, arrived in 1854. [2], Cloete, before returning to the Cape, visited Mpande and obtained from him a valuable concession. In 1889, he and his leading adherents were tried for treason, found guilty and sentenced to prison terms on St Helena. The promulgation of a Code of Laws placed Zululand under a similar 'Native Policy' to that in Natal. After the defeat at Isandlwana British pride had to be restored, and reinforcements were sent for. Indentured Indians arriving in Colonial Natal Image source, The need for a controlled labour force: Indentured Labourers. [2] During the six weeks previous to the relief, 200 deaths had occurred from disease alone, and altogether as many as 8424 were reported to have passed through the hospitals. T3 W5: The Zulu kingdom and the colony of Natal AND Co-operation and conflict on the Highveld . From the time of the coming of the first considerable body of British settlers dates the development of trade and agriculture in the colony, followed somewhat later by the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country. The sugar industry soon became of importance, and the planters were compelled to seek for large numbers of labourers. The Zulu’s left horn outflanked Durnford's infantry and descended onto the British camp from behind. When South Africa was formed in 1910, the Zulu king was regarded as a local chief by the South African government, with real power lying with the government. The right or Number I Column, commanded by Colonel C.K. The Battle of Rorke’s Drift and the Aftermath, The Charge of the 17th Lancers at the Battle of Ulundi. One day later, a depot at Rorke's Drift was attacked against the orders of Cetshwayo, who favoured a defensive strategy. In 1825 he was joined by King, who had meantime visited England and had obtained from the government a letter of recommendation to Lord Charles Somerset, governor of the Cape, granting King permission to settle at Natal. During the 1830s and early 1840s, the northern part of what is now KwaZulu-Natal was occupied by the Zulu Kingdom while the southern part was, briefly, the Boer republic of Natalia before becoming, in 1843, the British Colony of Natal. [2], The districts added to Natal contained about 6,000 white inhabitants (mostly Afrikaners), and some 92,000 natives, and had an area of nearly 7,000 square miles (18,000 km2), so that this annexation meant an addition to the white population of Natal of about one-tenth, to her native population of about one-tenth also, and to her territory of about one-fourth. The left flank column, however, managed to remain operative. An act authorizing the annexation was passed during 1902 and the territories were formally transferred to Natal in January 1903. They came as indentured laborers, but at the expiration of their contract were allowed to settle in the colony. This galvanized Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon who obtained permission from Disraeli to appoint Sir Theophilus Shepstone (known by the Zulu honorific as Somtseu meaning '’father of the nation'’) who had served for 30 years as a Natal administrator, first as Diplomatic Agent to Native Tribes, then as secretary for native affairs, to act as special commissioner to the Transvaal. While dependent on the Cape, ordinances had been passed establishing Roman-Dutch law as the law of Natal, and save where modified by legislation, it remained in force. More than 1 000 Zulu were killed and Cetshwayo was forced to flee for safety, until he was captured in the Ngome forest in August and exiled to the Cape. To appease colonial interests, his return was coupled with the annexation of Zululand by Natal in 1897. O. NLINE (Nov. 8, 2011), To learn more about the system visit SAHO’s feature on South African Indian’s, which focuses largely on indentured labour. The merchants, however, dispatched an expedition under Dr Andrew Smith to inquire into the possibilities of the country, and the favourable nature of his report induced a party of Boers under Piet Uys to go there also. Durnford, described as being 'as plucky as a lion but as imprudent as a child', impetuously pursued a Zulu foraging party. Commandant Jan Mocke of Winburg (who had helped to besiege Captain Smith at Durban) and others of the "war party" attempted to induce the volksraad not to submit, and a plan was formed to murder Pretorius, Boshof and other leaders, who were now convinced that the only chance of ending the state of complete anarchy into which the country had fallen was by accepting British sovereignty. However this proved unsatisfactory to the colonial government, and eighteen years later the kingdoms were annexed to the Natal colony, doubling its size. The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s. Alone among the South Africa states, Natal offered a welcome to Indians. The Siege of Ladysmith lasted until 28 February 1900, when the town was relieved by forces under Redvers Buller. The revolt was spectacularly successful for a short period, as the uSuthu under Dinuzulu made good use of the mountainous terrain to repulse a police contingent sent to arrest their leaders. Natal was proclaimed a British Colony in 1843, and administered from the Cape Colony in 1844. Two years later, in 1886, the Rand goldfields were proclaimed, and the tide of trade which had already set in with the Transvaal steadily increased. All Dutch colonists who had joined the Boer forces during the war were pardoned. [9], The intercolonial commission had dealt with the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole; it was felt that a more local investigation was needed, and in August 1906 a strong commission was appointed to inquire into the condition of the Natal natives. In 1894 Dinuzulu was pardoned and allowed to return to Zululand, but as a mere induna, or state official, with no chiefly powers or privileges. A member of the Zulu royal family, in the late 1830s Timuni fled from the Zulu kingdom to the Colony of Natal after incurring the wrath of the second Zulu king, Dingane, who sentenced him to death for buying a red blanket from European traders. These forces were under the command of chiefs Ntshingwayo kaMahole Khoza and Mavu-mengwana kaNdlela Ntuli. (Topic 6.3) - 15131091 They suffered huge losses as the British concentrated fire on the chest, and the attack was temporarily stalled. [2], The Second Boer War broke out on 11 October 1899 with the Boer seizure of a Natal train on the Orange Free State border. Dinuzulu was allowed to retain control of his portion of central Zululand, but the Boers were also acknowledged as owners of the New Republic. There is an indentured labour gallery on the SAHO site, webteam please select an image from there to insert in this section. [9], As early as July 1903 rumours were current that Dinuzulu, king of the Zulus, was disaffected. The settlers had been joined in the year named (1835) by Allen Francis Gardiner, a naval officer, whose chief object was the evangelization of the natives. Share this content. By 1910, nearly 26.85% indentured men returned to India, but most chose to stay and thus constituted the forbearers of the majority of present-day South African Indians. In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the Crown. Subsequently over 70% of the annual cost of administering Zululand was derived from this tax. It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Thus a new industry was added to the resources of the colony. He behaved with the utmost tact and got rid of the Winburg and Potchefstroom burghers by declaring that he should recommend the Drakensberg as the northern limit of Natal. The Zulu Kingdom and the Colony of Natal, S. A. FR. Between November 1860 and 1911 (when the system of indentured labour was stopped) nearly 152 184 indentured labourers from across India arrived in Natal. Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban. Wolseley's infamous settlement of Zululand had not destroyed the Zulu homestead-the basic productive unit in the kingdom's economy- nor had the Zulu been deprived of their land. The Kingdom grew and prospered to conquer the majority of Southern Africa and modern day KwaZulu-Natal. In August 1903 the Hime ministry resigned and was succeeded by a cabinet under the premiership of George Sutton, the founder of the wattle industry in Natal and one of the pioneers in the coal-mining industry. The first attack of the war took place on 12 January 1879, when the position of Sihayo's kraal, situated in the Batshe valley, threatened the successful advancement of the British column. The Zulu steadily advanced in the horn formation, their centre, or chest, pitted against Puileine's left flank. 15. The Zulu Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.. The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony. As time went on, however, the Natal government, alarmed at a series of murders of whites in Zululand and at the evidences of continued unrest among the natives, became convinced that Dinuzulu was implicated in the rebellious movement. The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa. During and after the Anglo-Zulu War, the small kingdom gained world renown, not least for initially defeating the British in 1879 at the Battle of Isandlwana. Grade 10 - Topic 5: Colonial expansion in South Africa after 1750. Note: Conflicting start dates for the beginning of the Anglo-Zulu war. At the time the white inhabitants numbered about 50,000. Language: English. White settlers and traders entered Zululand in increasing numbers, and Zululand was thus 'reconstructed'. Id. 1. Once more the uSuthu mounted resistance to the annexation, and again Zibhebhus services were called upon. It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia, and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa, as one of its provinces. Unsurprisingly Zululand suffered civil strife as a result of this arrangement. This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 18:20. [2], The colony's early population growth was driven by settlement from the United Kingdom between 1849 and 1851,[6] with approximately 4500 emigrants between 1848 and 1851. Chelmsford swiftly made his way back to Natal. The commission among other proposals for a more liberal and sympathetic native policy urged the creation of a native advisory Board entrusted with very wide powers. These disasters included a plague of locusts, drought and the devastating rinderpest epidemic of 1897- which led to a massive decline in homestead production. ), leader of the Zondi clan of the Zulu people, who lived in the Mpanza Valley (now a district near Greytown, KwaZulu-Natal) against British rule and taxation in the Colony of Natal, South Africa The centre or main force, the Number III Column, advanced from Pietermaritzburg via Greytown to Helpmekaar, under the leadership of Lord Chelmsford himself. The gradual emergence of a permanent labouring class alongside a traditional economy, based on homestead production and cattle-keeping, led to new social divisions in Zulu society. The first of these forces was the Number II Column at Krantzkop, under Brevet Col A.W. Shepstone averred that the Zulu people had revived their military power under Cetshwayo, which made them more of a threat to peace and prosperity in South Africa. Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence. Harbour works were begun in 1857, piers and jetties were constructed, dredgers imported, and controversy raged over the various schemes for harbour improvement. Zibhebhus followers were attacked by Dinuzulu and forced to flee hastily from the Ndwandwe district. Moor remained premier until the office was abolished by the establishment of the Union of South Africa. The second was the Number V Column at Luneberg to safeguard the Transvaal, which had been annexed by the British in 1877. Cambridge University Press. While the district commissioners were intended to keep in close touch with the natives, the council was to act as a "deliberative, consultative and advisory body. Durnford arrived the next day with a detachment to reinforce the camp and take over command. In addition, a hut tax was imposed, not only on each hut but on every wife regardless of whether she occupied a hut. The Natal colony was extended by successive acquisitions—notably that of Zululand, of which the British had assumed control after their victory over the Zulus in the Zulu War (1879). When the Transvaalers tried to claim even more land than what was agreed upon, the uSuthu refused. The election, which witnessed the return of four Labour members, resulted in a ministerial majority of a somewhat heterogeneous character, and in November 1906 Smythe resigned, being succeeded by Frederick Moor, who in his election campaign had criticized the Smythe ministry for their financial proposals. On 11 December 1878, under the flimsy pretext of a few minor border incursions into Natal by Cetshwayo's followers, the Zulu were given an impossible ultimatum- that they should disarm and Cetshwayo should forsake his sovereignty. Mpande gave up to Natal all the territory between the Buffalo and Tugela rivers, now forming Klip River county. The journey to De Kaap by bullock-waggon occupied about six weeks. "[9], On 31 May 1910, the Colony of Natal became Natal Province, one of the founding provinces of the Union of South Africa. A detachment of British troops tried to mount a final stand at a stream two miles away, but most retreated to Rorke's Drift or fled down the Mzinyathi River with the Zulu in pursuit. The first Indian labourers reached Natal in 1860. Zululand: 1843-1878: During the middle decades of the 19th century there are peaceful relations between the Zulu kingdom and the neighbouring British colony of Natal. In April 1842 Lord Stanley (afterwards 14th earl of Derby), then secretary for the colonies in the second Peel A… The Zulus managed to cut Colonel C.K. Colonel A.W. His trial was delayed until November 1908, and it was not until March 1909 that judgment was given, the court finding him guilty only on the minor charge of harbouring rebels. The commission also called attention to the numerical insufficiency of magistrates and native commissioners in certain parts of Natal. [2][8], John Robinson remained premier until 1897, a year marked by the annexation of Zululand to Natal. [9], In 1906 the Bambatha Rebellion broke out in the colony, attributable ostensibly to the poll tax, and spread to Zululand. The offer was declined, but in 1883 the legislative council was remodelled so as to consist of 23 elected and 7 nominated members. In the brig Salisbury, commanded by James S. King, who had been a midshipman in the navy, Farewell visited Port Natal, St Lucia and Delagoa Bays. (1911). Bhambatha, a chief in the Greytown district who had been deposed for misconduct, kidnapped the regent appointed in his stead. [2], As one result of the war, an addition was made to the territory of Natal, consisting of a portion of what had previously been included in the Transvaal. The Bambatha Rebellion (or the Zulu Rebellion) of 1906 was led by Bambatha kaMancinza (c. [2], The British settlers quickly realized that the coastlands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrowroot were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee. [8], Population Figures for the 1904 Census:[10]. In these circumstances, the task of Henry Cloete was one of great difficulty and delicacy. In 1898, Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State. [4], In 1823 Francis Farewell, formerly a lieutenant in the British navy, with other merchants of Cape Town, formed a company to trade with the natives of the south-east coast. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Pearson’s right column off from the border, and Pearson's men were besieged for three months at Eshowe. Already under stress from the imposition of the hut tax, many more Zulu men were forced into the Witwatersrand labour market to make ends meet and pay taxes. [2], Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually, the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. It is the home of the Zulu people and site of their 19th-century kingdom. The Zulu kingdom and the colony of Natal AND Co-operation and conflict on the Highveld. It was suppressed by the colonial forces under Colonel Duncan McKenzie, aided by a detachment of Transvaal volunteers. During 1903–1904 a Native Affairs' Commission, representative of all the states, obtained evidence on the status and conditions of the natives. The unrest in Zululand delayed action being taken on the commission's report. Natal, the focus of this book, was a nineteenth-century settler colony on the southeastern corner of the African continent. With the support of the traders he founded a mission station on the hill overlooking the bay. This led in 1887 to the British annexation of Zululand, while the king's office continued to The British, nonetheless, were at pains to explain that the war was against the Zulu royal house. Boer forces quickly occupied Newcastle. KwaZulu-Natal (; also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; Zulu: iKwaZulu-Natali; Xhosa: KwaZulu-Natala is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu and Natal Province were merged. Here the British fought with ‘rifle fire and bayonets’ and the Zulu force, led by Prince Dabulamanzi, suffered 500 casualties in this fruitless engagement. Laband, John and Paul Thompson, eds., Kingdom and Colony at War, The Anglo-Zulu War Series (Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press and Cape Town: N & S Press, 1990). Others had either been outrightly opposed to Cetshwayo or had shown little loyalty to him during the war. Farewell, King and Fynn made independent settlements at various parts of the bay. It is the only province in South Africa that has the name of its … They were to come into conflict with the appointed chiefs and by 1887 had 'fought themselves to a standstill'. The Zulu people formed a powerful Zulu Kingdom in 1816, one that was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal in 1897. "Kurveying" (the conducting of transport by bullock-waggon) in itself constituted a great industry. To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years. Both Dr Smith and Uys travelled overland through Kaffraria, and were well received by the English living at the bay. [2], There was a considerable party of Natal Boers still strongly opposed to the British, and they were reinforced by numerous bands of Boers who came over the Drakensberg from Winburg and Potchefstroom. Monarch - Wikipedia The sub-kingdoms fought amongst each other until 1883 when Cetshwayo was reinstated as king over Zululand. This policy was set to bring the various British colonies, Boer republics and independent African groups under common control- with a view to implementing a policy of economic development. ‎In 1879, the British colony of Natal invaded the neighboring Zulu kingdom. The British withdrew to Ladysmith. Those who continued to espouse the old Zulu order were known as the uSuthu, and were led by Ndabuko kaMpande, Cetshwayo's brother. [2], In 1884 the Witwatersrand Gold Rush caused a considerable rush of colonists from Natal to the Transvaal. It is now the KwaZulu-Natalprovince of South Africa. At the time the population of settlers and their descendants exceeded 8000. At the same time schools were established and various churches began or increased their work in the colony. Colonel Henry Pulleine was left in charge of the remaining forces, but did not organise his troops into a defensive circular ‘laager’ formation, as the wagons would be needed shortly to transport supplies. The work of improving the harbour was however continued with vigour, and finally, in 1904, such success was achieved that vessels of the largest class were enabled to enter port. The Kingdom of Zulu , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north. Natal was proclaimed a British Colony in 1843, and administered from the Cape Colony in 1844. In the Battle of Talana Hill on 20 October 1899, outside Dundee, British forces under William Penn Symons defeated the Boer columns, but failed to prevent their escape due to the fraudulent use of Red Cross flags by the Boers. In Zululand similar petitions were presented to the British Resident by the uSuthu. In 1843, Britain succeeded the Boers as the rulers of Natal, which controlled Zululand, the neighboring kingdom of the Zulu people. It was later merged with the province of Natal to form a new province, KwaZulu-Natal. The hut tax, however, served to divert some of the surplus accruing to an individual homestead head to the British government. Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, List of governors of British South African colonies § Natal Colony, "Durban largest 'Indian' city outside India", "The European Settler Population of Natal up to 1860, and their Influence Beyond the Borders of the Colony", "Gandhi's Natal: the state of the Colony in 1893", State President of the South African Republic, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha,, 1843 establishments in the British Empire, 1910 disestablishments in the British Empire, Former British colonies and protectorates in Africa, States and territories disestablished in 1910, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, All Wikipedia articles written in South African English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Zulu Kingdom: Union of South Africa: Today part of South Africa: The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. However, emigration was stopped in 1914. The voyage was not successful as a trading venture, but Farewell was so impressed with the possibilities of Natal both for trade and colonization that he resolved to establish himself at the port. The system of indenture has been compared to systems of slavery. The indentured labourers cemented their intentions to depart for South Africa by placing their marks or thumb print under a legal decree that read as follows, ‘We the undersigned male emigrants do hereby agree to serve the employer to whom we may respectively be allotted by the Natal Government under the Natal Act No. [2], The next wave of immigration consisted of Voortrekkers fleeing British rule in Cape Colony, who pushed out the English settlers at Port Natal. Zululand was formally annexed by the British in 1887 and made a part of Natal in 1897, becoming the eastern part of the colony. The leader of the party which sought responsible government was John Robinson who had gone to Natal in 1850, was a leading journalist in the colony, had been a member of the legislative council since 1863, and had filled various official positions. He was pursued and escaped to Zululand, where he received considerable help. These 'free Indians' came at their own expense from India, Mauritius, and other places. As a result the independent Zulu kingdom ends as suddenly under Cetshwayo as it has begun under his uncle Shaka. Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up traces the history of the Zulu kingdom and its British neighbors, the Colony of Natal. A landdrost was appointed and the town was renamed Viljoensdorp. The general election which was held in the following month turned on native policy and on the measures necessary to meet the commercial depression.

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