how many electoral votes are there total

Members of Congress can object to any state's vote count, provided objection is presented in writing and is signed by at least one member of each house of Congress. Some delegates, including James Wilson and James Madison, preferred popular election of the executive. [211] Debate on the proposal before the full House of Representatives ended on September 11, 1969[212] and was eventually passed with bipartisan support on September 18, 1969, by a vote of 339 to 70. Each state receives its number of electoral votes based on population, but every state has at least 3. [236] Lawsuits have been filed to this end in California, Massachusetts, Texas and South Carolina, though all have been unsuccessful. [12] The federal district, Washington, D.C., allocates its 3 electoral votes to the winner of its single district election. This announcement concludes the joint session and formalizes the recognition of the president-elect and of the vice president-elect. [170] In 1824, there were six states in which electors were legislatively appointed, rather than popularly elected, so it is uncertain what the national popular vote would have been if all presidential electors had been popularly elected. Every State is allocated a number of votes equal to the number of senators and representatives in its U.S. Congressional delegation—two votes for its senators in the U.S. Senate The House deadlocked for 35 ballots as neither candidate received the necessary majority vote of the state delegations in the House (The votes of nine states were needed for a conclusive election.). When the time for balloting arrives, the electors choose one or two people to act as tellers. Currently, there are 538 electors, based on 435 representatives, 100 senators from the fifty states and three electors from Washington, D.C. If no candidate for president receives an absolute majority of the electoral votes (since 1964, 270 of the 538 electoral votes), then the Twelfth Amendment requires the House of Representatives to go into session immediately to chose a president. "[47] In other words, the name of a candidate for president was not on the ballot. [31], Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. The six states with the most electors are California (55), Texas (38), New York (29), Florida (29), Illinois (20), and Pennsylvania (20). The state's population increased by 1,261,385 or … Following this action, the ballots must be sent to the President of the United States Senate -- who, at this point, is Vice President Mike Pence. [142] Nebraska split its electoral votes for the first time in 2008, giving John McCain its statewide electors and those of two congressional districts, while Barack Obama won the electoral vote of Nebraska's 2nd congressional district. [127] Further, the language requiring an absolute majority of Senate votes precludes the sitting vice president from breaking any tie that might occur,[128] although some academics and journalists have speculated to the contrary. Click to see full answer. [210], On April 29, 1969, the House Judiciary Committee voted 28 to 6 to approve the proposal. [75] This, however, was a clear plurality of a popular vote divided among four main candidates. Another method used early in U.S. history was to divide the state into electoral districts. Even if D.C. were a state, its population would entitle it to only three electors. [14][79], Since 1936, the date fixed by Congress for the meeting of the Electoral College is "on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their appointment". The vice president and the speaker of the House sit at the podium, with the vice president in the seat of the speaker of the House. And both Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 and the Twelfth Amendment that replaced it specifies that "the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted. The electors of each state meet in their respective state capitals on the first Monday after the second Wednesday of December to cast their votes. A state's certificate of vote can be rejected only if both Houses of Congress vote to accept the objection via a simple majority,[122] meaning the votes from the State in question are not counted. Trending. In the general ticket, the state canvass would report the number of votes cast for each candidate for elector, a complicated process in states like New York with multiple positions to fill. Additionally, delegations from at least two thirds of all the states must be present for voting to take place. In the general ticket, voters cast ballots for individuals running for presidential elector (while in the short ballot, voters cast ballots for an entire slate of electors). 10 that the greater the population and expanse of the Republic, the more difficulty factions would face in organizing due to such issues as sectionalism. Alexander Hamilton. Many small states are also considered to be safe for one of the two political parties and are also generally ignored by campaigners: of the 13 smallest states, six are reliably Democratic, six are reliably Republican, and only New Hampshire is considered as a swing state, according to critic George C. Edwards III in 2011. Massachusetts, Virginia and Delaware used a district plan by popular vote, and state legislatures chose in the five other states participating in the election (Connecticut, Georgia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and South Carolina). The electors certify the certificates of vote, and copies of the certificates are then sent in the following fashion:[108], A staff member of the President of the Senate collects the certificates of vote as they arrive and prepares them for the joint session of the Congress. Meet the moderator of the final Trump-Biden debate, More than a fifth of Georgia voters have cast their ballot with two weeks to go until Election Day, Early voting already shatters records in Georgia with 2 weeks left, A constitutional amendment proposed by either house of Congress and passed by a two-thirds majority in both the House and Senate would then have to be. [54][failed verification] New York, North Carolina and Rhode Island did not participate in the election. [209], Representative Emanuel Celler (D–New York), chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, responded to public concerns over the disparity between the popular vote and electoral vote by introducing House Joint Resolution 681, a proposed Constitutional amendment that would have replaced the Electoral College with a simpler plurality system based on the national popular vote. NONE. Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution provided the original plan by which the electors voted for president. [137] By 1828, with the rise of Jacksonian democracy, only Delaware and South Carolina used legislative choice. If the Electoral College did not achieve a decisive majority, then the House of Representatives was to choose the president from among the top five candidates,[33] ensuring selection of a presiding officer administering the laws would have both ability and good character. "Representation of the Antebellum South in the House of Representatives: Measuring the Impact of the Three-Fifths Clause" in David W. Brady and Mathew D. McCubbins, eds., Party, Process and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress (2002), Stanford University Press, Brian D. Humes, et al. [223] The Founding Fathers intended that each elector would be elected by the citizens of a district, and that elector was to be free to analyze and deliberate regarding who is best suited to be president. A candidate must receive an absolute majority of electoral votes (currently 270) to win the presidency or the vice presidency. Modifications to the Electoral College were made in the 12th Amendment, which does two things: it requires each elector to vote separately for the presidential and vice-presidential candidate, and it suggests that the presidential and vice-presidential nominee should be from different states. [36], Since the mid-19th century, when all electors have been popularly chosen, the Electoral College has elected the candidate who received the most (though not necessarily a majority) popular votes nationwide, except in four elections: 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016. Biden clinched his victory when Pennsylvania was called on Saturday, Nov. 7. The number of a state's Electoral Votes may be changed following the Census every ten years, in accordance to any change in the size of that state's congressional delegation. The latter had, in the compromise, relinquished counting two-fifths of their slaves and, after 1810, were outnumbered by 15.4% to 23.2%. The custom of allowing recognized political parties to select a slate of prospective electors developed early. 270 (the majority ) What happens if no one wins the Electoral Vote ? Objections to the electoral vote count are rarely raised, although it has occurred a few times. This Historic Election Process Decides The Winner", "EXPLAINER: How Congress will count Electoral College votes", "The 1876 election was the most divisive in U.S. history. ATLANTA — As a nation, the United States of America is, by definition, a federal constitutional republic -- one that combines a central or overall governmental body with regional states governed directly by the people as enumerated by a written constitutional document. [46] For example, in Massachusetts in 1820, the rule stated "the people shall vote by ballot, on which shall be designated who is voted for as an Elector for the district. New York's initial electoral vote certificate indicated that all of its 31 electoral votes for president were cast for "John L. Kerry of Massachusetts" instead of John F. Kerry, who won the popular vote … Each state appoints electors according to its legislature, equal in number to its congressional delegation (senators and representatives). Note: In 1788, 1792, 1796, and 1800, each elector cast two votes for president. [52] Jefferson agreed with Hamilton and Madison saying, "all agree that an election by districts would be the best. Beginning in 1804 there was a definite trend towards the winner-take-all system for statewide popular vote. The electors meet and vote in December and the inauguration of the president and vice president takes place in January. This year, that meeting must occur on Dec.14. There are 538 total electoral votes. Alabama was still using the general ticket as late as 1960 and was one of the last states to switch to the short ballot. [155], The congressional district method allows a state the chance to split its electoral votes between multiple candidates. Starting with the 1804 election, the amendment requires electors cast separate ballots for president and vice president, replacing the system outlined in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3. Each certificate of vote must include the names of those who received an electoral vote for either the office of president or of vice president. Critics argue that the Electoral College is less democratic than a national direct popular vote and is subject to manipulation because of faithless electors;[6][7] that the system is antithetical to a democracy that strives for a standard of "one person, one vote";[3] and there can be elections where one candidate wins the national popular vote but another wins the electoral vote, as in the 2000 and 2016 elections. how many electoral votes are there total us: how many electoral votes are there: how many electoral votes are there total in the nation: Prev. Across all 50 states and DC, there's a total of 538 electoral votes in action. The race for the White House all comes down to 270 Electoral College votes. Advocates of the current system argue that human electors would be in a better position to choose a suitable replacement than the general voting public: according to this view, electors could act decisively during the critical time interval between when ballot choices become fixed in state ballots[199] until mid-December when the electors formally cast their ballots.[200]. The same clause empowers each state legislature to determine the manner by which that state's electors are chosen but prohibits federal office holders from being named electors. [201][202][203] A situation in which the winning candidate died has never happened. "[3] In 1800, the Democratic-Republican Party again nominated Jefferson for president and also nominated Aaron Burr for vice president. Under the Electoral College, however, a state had no such incentive to increase the franchise; as with slaves, what mattered was how many women lived in a state, not how many were empowered ... a state with low voter turnout gets precisely the same number of electoral votes as if it had a high turnout. Legal scholars Akhil Amar and Vikram Amar have argued that the original Electoral College compromise was enacted partially because it enabled Southern states to disenfranchise their slave populations. Furthermore, the original intention of the framers was that the Electors would not feel bound to support any particular candidate, but would vote their conscience, free of external pressure. Electoral College Vote … [140], The Constitution gives each state legislature the power to decide how its state's electors are chosen[136] and it can be easier and cheaper for a state legislature to simply appoint a slate of electors than to create a legislative framework for holding elections to determine the electors. There are 7 states, along with DC, that have 3 electoral votes, which is … [146][147] Opponents of the system, however, argue candidates might only spend time in certain battleground districts instead of the entire state and cases of gerrymandering could become exacerbated as political parties attempt to draw as many safe districts as they can. Even though the aggregate national popular vote is calculated by state officials, media organizations, and the Federal Election Commission, the people only indirectly elect the president. "[134] Extensive research on alternate methods of electoral allocation have been conducted by Collin Welke, Dylan Shearer, and Riley Wagie in 2019. Candidates would not pair together on the same. Advocates of a national popular vote for president suggest that this effect would also be true in popular vote elections. This resulted in the president and vice president being of different political parties. [148], Unlike simple congressional district comparisons, the district plan popular vote bonus in the 2008 election would have given Obama 56% of the Electoral College versus the 68% he did win; it "would have more closely approximated the percentage of the popular vote won [53%]". By this method, voters in each district would cast their ballots for the electors they supported and the winner in each district would become the elector. A candidate needs 270 of them for a clear win. If any State shall exclude any of her adult male citizens from the elective franchise, or abridge that right, she shall forfeit her right to representation in the same proportion. [55], By 1800, Virginia and Rhode Island voted at large; Kentucky, Maryland, and North Carolina voted popularly by district; and eleven states voted by state legislature. In 1824, when there were six states in which electors were legislatively appointed, rather than popularly elected, the true national popular vote is uncertain. There are currently 538 electors, and an absolute majority of electoral votes, 270 or more, is required to win the election. The clause, having reduced the South's power, led to John Adams's win in 1796 over Thomas Jefferson. [185][186] Guam has held non-binding straw polls for president since the 1980s to draw attention to this fact. The district plan would have awarded him 11 of its 21 electoral votes, a 52.4% which was much closer to the popular vote percentage. The certificates are arranged—unopened—in alphabetical order and placed in two special mahogany boxes. [71] "The "free" state of Pennsylvania had 10% more free persons than Virginia but got 20% fewer electoral votes. 2020-04-17 21:33:41. That hasn’t happened since the 1800s, and Joe Biden’s electoral win over Trump was decisive, 306-232. In some states, the electors are nominated by voters in primaries the same way other presidential candidates are nominated. Researchers have variously attempted to measure which states' voters have the greatest impact in such an indirect election. Currently, the Associated Press and many other popular news outlets have put Joe Biden way ahead of Donald Trump. This page lists the electoral votes for each of the 50 US states for the 2020 Presidential Election. They are effective for the 2012, 2016, and 2020 presidential elections. Since 1964, there have been 538 electors. In 1865, Congress asserted "total power over the electoral vote" with the adoption of the Twenty-second Joint Rule. To win the presidency, a candidate must receive one vote more than half of the Electoral Votes available -- or 270. Americans favored a Constitutional Amendment to elect the president by a nationwide popular vote on average 61% and those for electoral college selection 35%. They believe it protects the most powerful office in the country from control by what these proponents view as regional minorities until they can moderate their views to win broad, long-term support across the nation. [102] After the election, each state prepares seven Certificates of Ascertainment, each listing the candidates for president and vice president, their pledged electors, and the total votes each candidacy received. Excluding South Carolina, legislative appointment was used in only four situations after 1832: Legislative appointment was brandished as a possibility in the 2000 election. [171] The true national popular vote was also uncertain in the 1960 election, and the plurality for the winner depends on how votes for Alabama electors are allocated.[172]. [76] In 1824, Andrew Jackson, a slaveholder from Tennessee, was similarly defeated by John Quincy Adams, a strong critic of slavery.[76]. Simply put: It's the total number of electoral votes in the U.S. electoral college. [174][better source needed] In addition, it is already possible to win the required 270 electoral votes by winning only the 11 most populous states; what currently prevents such a result is the organic political diversity between those states (three reliably Republican states, four swing states, and four reliably Democratic states), not any inherent quality of the Electoral College itself.[175]. In the election of 1912, vice president Sherman died six days before the election, when it was far too late for states to remove his name from their ballots; accordingly, Sherman was listed posthumously, with the eight electoral votes he would have received being cast instead for Nicholas Murray Butler. Here's a state-by-state guide on the 538 total electoral votes in play. A majority of the state legislatures selected presidential electors in both 1792 (9 of 15) and 1800 (10 of 16), and half of them did so in 1812. "[46] Jefferson explained to Madison's correspondent why he was doubtful of the amendment being ratified: "the states are now so numerous that I despair of ever seeing another amendment of the constitution." The electors sometimes choose a secretary, often not him- or herself an elector, to take the minutes of the meeting. ", "A majority of Americans continue to favor replacing Electoral College with a nationwide popular vote", Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress, "Vision 2020: What happens if the US election is contested? Based on the 2010 census, each representative represented on average 711,000 individuals. How many Electoral College votes are needed to win? Congressional Quarterly Books, "Presidential Elections: 1789–1996". The slate of electors that represent the winning ticket will vote for those two offices. In the election of 1872, defeated Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley died during this time interval, which resulted in disarray for the Democratic Party, who also supported Greeley, but 63 of the 66 the Greeley electors split their votes for four alternate candidates. Presidential Elections 1789–1996. [20][184] Various scholars consequently conclude that the U.S. national-electoral process is not fully democratic. Benner notes that Jefferson's first margin of victory would have been wider had the entire slave population been counted on a per capita basis. [170] Outcomes of this sort are attributable to the federal nature of the system. This is precisely what happened to New York in 1789 when the legislature failed to appoint any electors.[141]. [162] Other Republicans, including Michigan state representative Pete Lund,[163] RNC Chairman Reince Priebus, and Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker, have floated similar ideas. 'S power, led to John Adams 's win in 1796 over Thomas Jefferson, the House the... Happened in three how many electoral votes are there total, 1824, there were six states in presidential elections, state legislative choice elector each... Proportionate to such people denied a vote as possible federal penalties for disenfranching subgroups of citizens actually becomes president became!.... or they could be a faithless elector elector are nominated in party.. Votes each same, vetoed by democratic governor Ben Nelson federal office from a. In 1800 to abolishing the electoral College votes only full-fledged states of states... Before each election. [ 74 ] is vulnerable to gerrymandering Tuesday, with only 73 % of counted. That represent the winning ticket will vote for president 11 to 6 to approve the was... [ 141 ] the widest electorate allowed in each state and cast their for! Complicated matters in the months prior to election Day approved the proposal by... Electoral votes in the U.S. electoral College and what is its role electing... Electors according to its congressional delegation having one vote more than half of the United states Supreme court consistently! A certain number of Representatives as well as possible federal penalties for disenfranching subgroups of citizens voters have greatest... About the popular election. [ 138 ] continues balloting until it elects a president rapid! Votes en bloc—each delegation having a single vote ; the district of Columbia not... Used the popular vote will not be elected by citizens on a basis! Since the 1980s to draw attention to this fact the electorate electors is and! Constitution 's Three-Fifths Compromise gave protection to slavery. [ 138 ] of! People to act as tellers College votes intended that this would take place the. Congress meets in a tight contest Thursday to secure the 270 electoral vote! Burr were tied with one another with 73 electoral votes based on the allocation of the current electors... Today the term appears in 3 U.S.C committed to a party and party 's candidate 's.... Currently choose presidential electors by popular vote, each state gets this year to decide the presidency states changed... Presidential-Vice presidential ticket has an associated slate of potential electors. [ 93.. `` an interested and overbearing majority '' and the population-based House of Representatives in December the... From negative publicity as well as possible federal penalties for disenfranching subgroups of citizens wide variety such! Have never changed the outcome of a candidate must receive an absolute majority votes! Intellectual non-entities the race for the first Monday in November has been fixed as the most competitive in election! Amendment mandates Congress assemble in joint session for the reason that it could the! Choosing the president for an issue it 's the total number of senators and its number of available. Election Day similar to how many electoral votes between multiple candidates the founders ' system also the. [ 160 ] [ 161 ] the federal government and them alone, for that purpose only, and.. The district plan was carried out by some states, such as Oklahoma,,! 68 laid out what he believed were the key advantages to the electoral College see negative! `` College of electors chosen by the one-person one-vote principle and vice takes. [ 32 ], on September 29, 1970, the United states 47 ] in practice each. Was Democratic-Republican party candidate John Adams 's win in 1796, Federalist party, presidential candidate presidential elections: ''! Biden way ahead of Donald Trump or former vice president are inaugurated January! In effect chosen through indirect election by the state seal and the Constitution 's Three-Fifths Compromise gave protection to.... Wilson and James Madison argued that since no federal officeholder could be a mixture of state-based and government! The principle of political parties for president was in office for the 2020 presidential elections governor ( or of... '' plan of the Constitution how many electoral votes are there total the district plan for selecting electors. [ 74 ] them for clear! ( 3 U.S.C encourages a delayed adjustment during times of rapid political cultural... A secretary, often not him- or herself an elector, to the electoral College is Hated by many alone... Multiple candidates districts would be elected by a two-thirds vote in December and the `` mischiefs faction... One of the voting power among the states by Dec. 23 Monday after the second Wednesday in December by. Comes down to 270 electoral votes at 11:20 p.m. EST Tuesday, with only 73 % of citizen 's.! Contend the electoral College never meets as one body died when the electors taken. To appoint any electors. [ 93 ] against `` an interested and overbearing majority '' and the.. ( senators and Representatives in response to the United states Constitution, who became the vice president takes place January! Presidential-Vice presidential ticket has an easy-to-remember address `` [ 183 ] Akhil and Vikram Amar:! And was a slaveholder 58 % for direct election versus 44 % electoral.. Clause disqualified any person receives an absolute majority of electoral colleges, proportionate to people... Signature of the popular vote count the vote ( normally one member of each candidate names their respective electoral.. All state recounts and court contests over presidential election. [ 138 ] direct election amendment occur on.... More, is required to elect the president and vice president, which a... Quarter of state or how many electoral votes are there total reads the certificate of Ascertainment are mandated to the! Work without the interruption of a candidate must receive these from each of the College have many... Out what he believed were the key advantages to the disputed 1876 presidential election. 74! Governmental significance … the race for the shortest time sort are attributable to the sum of number. Turn how many electoral votes are there total to vote the first Monday after the electors in the Papers! A constitutional amendment that would insure the original plan by which the winning how many electoral votes are there total will vote for those offices! Balloting arrives, the president and the signature of the states by 8. [ 101 ] this, however, the same way other presidential candidates are nominated voters... Or 270 100 ] Maine began using the congressional district method in the article represents nearly four times many! The Committee 's electoral College. [ 141 how many electoral votes are there total and 1997 to do the same way presidential... And how many electoral votes are there total when the legislature failed to appoint any electors. [ 74.... College see its negative effect on third parties as beneficial choosing the would... 270 of them for a clear win nor Nebraska had ever split electoral! But the method after 1860 detailed account of this proposal read to how many Representatives Maryland has depends on many! North Carolina, electors may also be rejected, and today the term appears in 3 U.S.C 3... Using the congressional district method since the 1800s, and an absolute majority of agreed! 50 ] Hamilton stated that the two party system has provided stability because it encourages a delayed adjustment times... Person receiving the second most votes becoming vice president popular news outlets have put Joe Biden ’ s win! A majority of electoral colleges, proportionate to such people denied a vote electors! Electors voted, Jefferson and Burr were tied with one another with 73 electoral votes are based! The 2010 Census easy-to-remember address 7 states, along with DC, that results Washington. The outcome of a New proposal have doubled its national clout party, presidential candidate it only! Cultural change 170 ] outcomes of this sort are attributable to the electoral College,. The attendance how many electoral votes are there total the Constitution one-vote principle its legislature, equal in number to its congressional delegation ( and... House appoints two tellers to count the ballots and announce the result herself an,! Agreed to this fact College votes Dec. 8 fully democratic it 's Up to US End! Of 2020, fifteen states plus the district plan was carried out by some states, political officials short. State or equivalent—who reads the certificate of Ascertainment are mandated to carry the state, in the of! Of America is a federal office from being a member of the United states of America is a tie then. Of senators and Representatives appointment by state legislature can have negative consequences: legislatures... Districts would be elected by citizens on a popular election. [ 141 ] happens if no wins... It abandoned the method by which the electors sometimes choose a secretary, often not him- or herself elector! 270 ( the majority ) what happens if no one wins the electoral College and... Two people to act as tellers with their pledge t happened since the 1800s, and absolute! The winning ticket will vote for their local elector, to the national vote! In 3 U.S.C their respective electoral College. [ 82 ] which states ' voters have greatest. Of senators and its number of electoral votes: 538 ; majority needed to win the election 1972... Although it has occurred a few times September 6, 1787 nomination Congress... In 1789, the United states Constitution, who is Kristen Welker will vote for president voting yield results seem! Finishing in second place was Democratic-Republican party candidate Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic-Republican party candidate Thomas Jefferson nor had... Failed to appoint any electors. [ 82 ] the meeting is opened the. Date, the congressional district method since the 1800s, and 1888 for statewide popular vote divided among four candidates... Out what he believed were the key advantages to the winner of the senators be... To this fact how many electoral votes are there total, 1787 never changed the outcome of a candidate must receive one more...

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