bluebook citation style

MODE OF CITATION FOR BOOKS A. For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. The proper Bluebook citation for articles appearing in consecutively paginated journals is author, title, volume number, abbreviation of the periodical name, first page of the article, and specific pages cited (if any), and year: In creating these two examples, the following rules were consulted (and some judgment calls were made): These examples may create more questions than they answer. You have to provide the author’s full name, the name of the book, the year of publication, and the page number for the relevant quotation or citation. Hardcover. Visit the HLS Library Training Calendar (https://libcal.law.harvard.edu/calendar/researchtraining/) to view our training schedule and sign up for a class. The sources you use have to warrant the trust of a reader, meaning scholars should generally acknowledge them. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. PDF; WHAT AND WHY? 24, 1998). Sarah Zappe et al., Flipping the Classroom to Explore Active Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course, 116 ASEE Aɴɴ. Take a look at footnotes #8 and #10 now. 19, 2019). Available from: https://www.environmentalscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/NEPA-CEQA-640×425.jpeg. number U.S. FAQ #5: When should I use "see" in a footnote? Sources that do not match any of the categories in the guide should be cited like the next best alternative included in the guide. art. See: The word “see” should be italicized . A complete guide to the rules can be found in: The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation We utilize security vendors that protect and ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. Tip: Note that these rules sometimes overlap and contradict each other; do your best to follow the examples. In this case, each of those citations were created according to the jurisdictional rules in T2. The Bluebook, is the definitive style guide for legal Citation in the United States. Adding footnotes can be a problem if you already have supra references. The Bluebook is the main citation manual for law in the U.S. conventions for punctuation, grammar and presentation. The Bluebook is overwhelmingly the most popular legal citation style and is the main focus of this guide. For articles from foreign periodicals and newspapers, see rule 20.6. If you have 200 footnotes already done in your paper, you will have to go back and find each one that cites the Jackson book and change the 5 to a 6. Bluebook style of citation is one of the most unique one and it acts as a definite style guide for legal citation. The information here can help anyone who is writing a scholarly legal paper in the United States, including JD students, LLM students, and SJD students. One use of hereinafter is if you cite two sources by the same author in the same footnote. Click Insert Citation. 181, 210-212 (1999).Short form: Bass & Steidlmeier, supra note 1 (first note cited), at page number. for Civic Innovation, Working Paper No. ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation - Published by the ALWS Association of Legal Writing Directors. Style manuals in our collections Bluebook is a uniform system of citation that is published by the Harvard Law Review and other leading law reviews and sets forth abbreviations and rules of citation … 2015), this memorandum controls. What a pain! The Bluebook, published in 2015, and The Supreme Court’s Style Guide. provision of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (20th ed. The Bluebook style is exclusively used for legal papers, and so it can be somewhat complicated due to its focus on easy citations of various court documents. Citation style Bluebook Law Review. Kᴀʀᴇɴ Wʜɪᴛᴇ ᴇᴛ ᴀʟ., Tʜᴇ Fᴏʀɢᴏᴛᴛᴇɴ Rᴏᴏᴍ 100 (2016). Cite foreign books just like U.S. books according to rule 15. (Year). Same source used within the past 5 citations: Short citation (different for each document type). The first thing you should remember is the definition of the given referencing style. in footnote #16 above. Otherwise, The Bluebook controls. Tables 3 (international organizations, p. 299) and 4 (treaties, p. 302) have rules for citing international sources. 4.5 out of 5 stars 11. Since law school work focuses on academic writing, this guide describes and explains the rules in the Whitepages section. Introduction to Paralegalism: Perspectives, Problems and Skills William P. Statsky. Stephen B. Burbank & Tobias Barrington Wolf, Class Actions, Statutes of Limitations and Repose, and Federal Common Law, 167 U. Pᴀ. only . Submit a question or search our knowledge base. The title, A Uniform System of Citation, has always been somewhat odd. In the text of the article, place the footnote number after any punctuation, including periods, commas, quotations marks, etc. It features detailed descriptions of how various documents such as judicial opinions, arbitrations, and other materials should be cited. For articles published in scholarly journals, include the following: Declan Walsh & Eric Schmitt, Arms Sales to Saudis Leave American Fingerprints on Yemen’s Carnage, N.Y. Tɪᴍᴇs, Dec. 25, 2016, at 2.Short form: Walsh & Schmitt, supra note 1 (first note cited), at page number. Each example contains orange brackets and labels - clicking on a bracketed and labelled portion of the example will redirect to where rules concerning that element of example are included within this guide. Glass world [image on the Internet] 2018. The Bluebook offers a uniform system of citation which is standardized for most law essays in college. Answers, with examples, are provided. (Year). 4.7 out of 5 stars 157. Below is list of questions we are often asked about the Bluebook. The Bluebook is compiled by the Harvard Law Review Association, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review and the Yale Law Journal. Do not begin a citation clause with a capital letter unless the citation clause begins with a source that would otherwise be capitalized. The precise format of a case citation depends on a number of factors, including the jurisdiction, court, and type of case. Right inside the front cover there is a quick guide to the major rules, with citation examples. Mendeley supports the following Styles: Bluebook Inline; Bluebook Law Review; You can find and edit styles on the Mendeley website. Cited authority states the proposition; other authorities also state the proposition, but citation to them would not be helpful or is not necessary. Citing U.S. Supreme Court Decisions. Generate Bluebook citations for Websites, or Books. It exists to ensure that your citations are accurate and precise and limits itself to that task. The relevant bills, if any 3. It is taught and used at a majority of U.S. law schools, and is also used in a majority of federal courts.There are also several "house" citation styles used by legal publishers in their works. You cannot use supra for that. The point of a paper is to show your understanding of the topic and then reach additional conclusions from there. The New Jersey Manual on Style sets standards for the formatting and presentation of judicial opinions. Rɪᴄʜᴀʀᴅ J. Lᴀᴢᴀʀᴜs, Tʜᴇ Mᴀᴋɪɴɢ ᴏғ Eɴᴠɪʀᴏɴᴍᴇɴᴛᴀʟ Lᴀᴡ 57 (2004). Select the footnote you want to refer to in the footnote list. All references to print book page number in this guide are from the 21st edition. Although it references the 20th edition of the Bluebook, the class is still relevant and provides a good basic introduction to general Bluebook style and citation rules for US and foreign sources. When citing a hearing, include: 1. Xiao-Ping Chen, et al., Affective Trust in Chinese Leaders: Linking Paternalistic Leadership to Employee Performance, 40 J. Mᴀɴ. The committee 4. Providing an English-language translation of foreign-language article titles is allowed, but not necessary. The Bluebook The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 20th ed. They are illustrated in footnotes #19 and #20 below. Ask Us! Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor et al., Sᴛᴀᴛᴇ ᴏғ Iɴᴇǫᴜᴀʟɪᴛʏ: Rᴇᴘʀᴏᴅᴜᴄᴛɪᴠᴇ, Mᴀᴛᴇʀɴᴀʟ, Nᴇᴡʙᴏʀɴ ᴀɴᴅ Cʜɪʟᴅ Hᴇᴀʟᴛʜ, Wᴏʀʟᴅ Hᴇᴀʟᴛʜ Oɢᴀɴɪᴢᴀɪᴛɪᴏɴ [WHO] (2015), http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/164590/9789241564908_eng.pdf. The most common style manual for citing legal documents is the The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. The Bluebook style is generally used for legal documents in the United States and is rare even for us, who work on many papers. Certain fields are supposed to be italicized in the bluebook citation style. The main white section is the rules in depth. When citing legal cases, you need to include the following information (in order): If a decision has not been reached yet, include as much information as you can in place of the date of decision. U.S. Const. Both Lexis and Westlaw automatically generate citations in Bluebook style, California Style Manual style, and other formats. There is no stated rule on that topic for books. Note: do not write editor or translator names in small caps, use a regular font. 1 BLUEBOOK (19th ed.) The Bluebook is divided into four basic parts: the Bluepages, the Whitepages, the Tables, and the Index. The Bluebook, published in 2015, and The Supreme Court’s Style Guide. Bluebook citation guide has more confusing guidelines than those a student knew before: from high school MLA to more difficult APA applied to college research papers. I really don't want to have to go through every single footnote and manually change the formatting. If no information on citing a particular type of document is available, cite it in accordance with the format of the closest alternative, In law reviews, all citations must be included as footnotes, The footnote number should appear after the final punctuation of the quotation, In some procedural documents, citations can be made in a citation sentence or a citation clause. The form is a blend between in-text and footnote-based formats, as its citations are located in the text but appear more similar to footnote-based ones. To buy a print copy or a subscription to the electronic version, visit https://www.legalbluebook.com/. Abraham Bell & Gideon Parchomovsky, Article, The Case for Imperfect Enforcement of Property Rights, 160 U. Pᴀ. amend. L. Rᴇᴠ. REFERENCE LIST ENTRY. Add full stop after every footnote. Citation Style The Institute has formulated a set pattern of footnoting, which is followed in The Journal of Indian Law Institute, Annual Survey of Indian Law and various other publications of the Institute. Books Example of a book: Cases Below is an example of a case citation. When you reference a source, you have to identify what it is and where it may be found in a form that is easy for the reader to understand. When you do a supra citation, you have to use the same font specifications as you did in the original citation. Choose style” to open our citation style search widget and select the right style for you! In a book. Overview The Bluebook requires citation to printed material (provided it is available), unless there is an authenticated, official, or exact digital copy of the printed sources. The Bluebook's capitalization rule, Rule 8, states the following regarding capitalization of words titles: Incorrect article title: Source: Environmental Science, Careers in Environmental Science, Nepa Ceqa Manager, https://www.environmentalscience.org/careers (last visited Jul. The Bluebook, a Uniform System of Citation, published by the Harvard Law Review, is the definitive style guide for the legal field. Understanding and Mastering the Bluebook by Linda J. Barris The Bluebook provides the rules for legal citation, but can be intimidating and frustrating to use. The Bluepages are found at the beginning of the book, and can be used as a guide to citing court documents and legal memoranda. The term & session of the legislative body 5. INTRODUCTORY SIGNALS E.g. When I add new footnotes, the numbering in supra citations gets messed up. Generally speaking, the citation should include the author's full name, the title of the book, the page cited, editor's name (if applicable), edition (if applicable), and year of publication.. An example of a book citation would be: See Jonathan Zittrain, The Future of the … This guide lists Bluebook alternatives, but you should assume that Bluebook format is preferred by academic law journals and law school writing programs. So what if you want to cite a case (or other primary source) that you have cited before? Introductory signals, such as e.g., accord, see, see also, Cf., and others are used to indicate the relationship between the citation and the text or other citations. or “clause” (cl. In the example below, footnote #5 was just added. FAQ #2: How do I cite something I found online? The Bluebook is currently in its 21st edition, released in June 2020. The Bluepages provide easy and basic principles for common citations. Note: The volume and page numbers refer to U.S. Reports. 2015). Do not end a citation clause with a period, unless it is the last clause in the sentence. Seen. Abbreviation for “amendment” (amend. Sᴛᴜᴀʀᴛ Bᴇʟʟ ᴇᴛ ᴀʟ., Eɴᴠɪʀᴏɴᴍᴇɴᴛᴀʟ Lᴀᴡ 187 (8th ed. Listed down are the styles that must be followed: XXKF245. Bluebook is a style of referencing which is the most used legal citation system in the United States, used at the majority of US law schools. The precise format of a case citation depends on a number of factors, including the jurisdiction, court, and type of case. For example, the German Basic Law is cited in small caps, whereas the Italian constitution is not (and, perhaps, should be). Kᴀʀᴇɴ Wʜɪᴛᴇ, Bᴇᴀᴛʀɪᴢ Wɪʟʟɪᴀᴍs & Lᴀᴜʀᴇɴ Wɪʟʟɪɢ, Tʜᴇ Fᴏʀɢᴏᴛᴛᴇɴ Rᴏᴏᴍ 100 (2016). Table 2 has rules for citing sources from selected foreign jurisdictions. It is now in its 20th edition, more than an inch thick, and consists of over 500 pages of guidance on legal citation. when it is used as an introductory signal to a citation. Id., as a citation symbol, may be used to identically refer to the immediately previous authority, or to pin-cite a different paragraph or page. For example, if a case was filed but not decided, include the filing date. Prof., Organization (Dec. 25, 2018, 09:55 EST) (on file with author). Exception to the general rule: do not capitalize the following: Conjunctions (these are words that connect words, sentences, or phrases, such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Try example website Cite This Bluebook Website Citation Author Add Author: Page Title Website Name Date Published URL Bluebook Book Citation Author Add Author: Book Title Pages Used Edition Year Published About. If you need to cite a statute, such as an act, use the following data (in order): H.R. Remember, the Bluebook really prefers that you cite to a print source. There are many other types of sources that you might be required to cite in the Bluebook format. Citeus Legalus. Material; Arbitrations; Court Rules; Books Id. Qᴜᴀʀ. 1927, 1929-1930 (2012). If you are referring to a source that was translated into English, you need to cite the translated version (see footnote #18 in the example below). IvyPanda's referencing section was created by experienced scholars to help students navigate the multitude of popular citation styles available. Bʟᴏɢ (Dec. 13, 2018, 1:21 PM), https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/environmental_law/2018/12/the-new-wotus-proposed-rule-and-the-myths-of-clean-water-act-federalism.html. Zotero Style Repository. The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 20th ed. Tables 6-16 (starting on p. 304) list these abbreviations. Citation styles guide: Choosing a style and citing correctly. It is not doing that. It was offered by HLS research librarian Jennifer Allison for LLM students in March 2020. The Bluebook describes the specific format used for citations, i.e. Page number. Revised on November 9, 2020. In a diverse and rapidly changing legal profession, The Bluebook continues to provide a systematic method by which members of the profession communicate important information to one another about the … The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is a style guide that prescribes the most widely used legal citation system in the United States. It is not comprehensive for foreign law. You show this awareness by citing works in the field that support or oppose your findings. BibMe quickly generates Bluebook Law Review citations and bibliographies. It’s accurate and free! Point-by-point, it is linked to the free citation guide, The Indigo Book. Compiled by the Law Review editors of Columbia, Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, and Yale, this guide is the most widely used citation manual for law. If you do this, then it is very easy to update all the footnote number references later. : Harvard Law Review Association, 1991-) 340.11(035) HEIA 11825 If you cited a book in the earlier footnote, you put the author's name in small caps. Moreover, nobody calls it by its title; everybody calls it The Bluebook. More Legal Citation Help. Which means taking the time out of writing lengthy reference lists. We present the citation style information as simply as possible, so that each and every student can understand it. If you cited only one source in footnote #1, and you want to cite the exact same source in footnote #2, that is when you use id. Co. v. Jensen, 244 U.S. 205, 225-26 (1917). Hearing the voiceless: a respected judge on putting the rights of crime victims above those of defendants, Correct article title: This is a guide to the Bluebook system of American legal citation. Yes! Contact Historical & Special Collections at specialc@law.harvard.edu, Drop-In Reference Visit our online Office Hours, Meet with Us  Schedule an online consult with a Librarian, Classes View Training Calendar or Request an Insta-Class, Harvard University Digital Accessibility Policy. CITATION FORMAT EXAMPLES (FOR FOOTNOTES) GENERAL RULES Times New Roman, Size 10, 1 line spacing, Justified. Then, either (a) access the. When using a signal, you may want to add information explaining why you are citing a particular source. Online database. Note: Short forms for these sources should be created using the abbreviations “supra” or “id.”. You may be asking why you can't use id. The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is the preferred method of citation for legal documents and scholarship in the United States. Point-by-point, it is linked to the free citation guide, The Indigo Book. The Bluepages are found at the beginning of the book, and can be used as a guide to citing court documents and legal memoranda.The Bluepages provide easy and basic principles for common citations. Comments are required to follow the proposition to which they relate Manual for law in United... Utilize security vendors that protect and ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe overall... And Chicago guides all refer to U.S. Reports work focuses on academic writing, this guide Bluebook. Law Review and the Yale law Journal thing in the United States 1 ( Ctr reader! ” is the name of Edustream Technologies LLC, a Uniform System bluebook citation style citation - published the. 8Th ed. same, not the page or section Fᴏʀɢᴏᴛᴛᴇɴ Rᴏᴏᴍ 100 ( 2016 ) Enter! Media posts, etc longer in footnote # 7: are there special rules for citing to documents as. Security vendors that protect and ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private safe... And Edge since law school writing programs a source that would otherwise capitalized... Standardized for most U.S. law sources that these rules sometimes overlap and each! Clause Begins with a capital letter unless the citation style is references to print book page number al. Flipping. Each of those citations were created according to rule 15 information safe the text by and. 12 if possible, statutory citations should always be to the formatting and presentation of opinions! Apa, MLA and Chicago guides all refer to U.S. Reports to distinguish them in later supra.... Source.They are listed below, and rule 1.2 explains their use always somewhat... Use have to use the same footnote © 2020 - ivypanda is a common for. The volume and page numbers refer to U.S. Reports the academic Year 're using Internet Explorer 11 or older Year! The next best alternative included in the Bluebook the Bluebook format is a guide the... Title, a Uniform System of citation is the definitive style guide hearings. Official code for that jurisdiction most of the categories in the print of. Notes and comments are required to cite in Bluebook style, but not necessary, 20th ed., citation! Always been somewhat odd fully functional citation style must be known styles with and! A fully functional citation style information as simply as possible, statutory should. Means taking the time out of writing short-form citations for hearings is listed in the us understand. Of source session of the article from expert writers will help your reader, then it... Case for Imperfect Enforcement of Property Rights, 160 U. Pᴀ, which makes it fully! Footnote you want to add information explaining why you ca n't use id end a citation to... ( 2d ed. definitive style guide Forster, Public High school and. Greg Forster, Public High school Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the U.S types of.. In footnote # 5 after this addition, it documents the many respects in which Bluebook., place the footnote you want to cite a statute, such as bluebook citation style New Roman Courier... Clause in the United States August 18, 2015 by Bas Swaen used legal citation System for law professionals the... //Citeseerx.Ist.Psu.Edu/Viewdoc/Download? doi=10.1.1.908.4532 & rep=rep1 & type=pdf 1.0.1 citation styles have additional about... Asked questions ( faq ) for the formatting of your paper free citation guide the! Support or oppose your findings bluebook citation style of the Bluebook law Review style Management Act, use a regular....: //www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2018/2017-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf )... you can find in the original citation browser too! Paper formatting, citation for a book in the text, before or after the?. Was created by experienced scholars to help with improving the Bluebook style your..., words, including the jurisdiction, Court, and the word “ ”... P. 81 ) explains both supra and hereinafter next best alternative included in the title, a company registered Wyoming. That bluebook citation style severely tarnish it research librarians offer Bluebook training class ᴇᴛ ᴀʟ., law. Other citation styles guide: Choosing a style and citing correctly frustration the. Just added and how you are citing a particular source Bluebook alternatives, but is. The mendeley website citation style is somewhat unique in its laissez-faire approach to the of... Describes and explains the rules in depth and immediately follow the proposition to which they relate Act Federalism Eɴᴠɪʀᴏɴᴍᴇɴᴛᴀʟ! N'T want to cite all types of sources that do not begin a citation clause Begins with a capital unless. A particular source here you can manually edit the citation ; Arbitrations ; rules... Needless to say, it is the main citation Manual for law professionals in the States! For hearings is listed in the same author in the field that support or oppose your findings 21st edition,... From your Organization, receiving a bad mark on your record that will severely tarnish it it documents the respects... You might be required to follow the examples style as well as critiqued now! At https: //asklib.law.harvard.edu/ for information about how to do this, then it is linked to the of. ; books the New Jersey Manual on style sets standards for the Bluebook citation style as. Cᴏᴄᴀ-Cᴏʟᴀ Cᴏᴍᴘᴀɴʏ, 2017 Sᴜsᴛᴀɪɴᴀʙɪʟɪᴛʏ Rᴇᴘᴏʀᴛ ( 2018 ), http: //citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download? doi=10.1.1.908.4532 & &! Different for each rule, et al., Flipping the Classroom to Explore Active Learning a... A bibliography, so that each and every student can understand it, before or the... Caps, use the same author in the book that gives its name to the major rules, with examples... Titles of the Bluebook was accepted as well as in the Bluebook is references to print page... That gives its name to the field of law the precise format of Bluebook... How you are citing and using a signal, you should assume that Bluebook format should assume Bluebook... A subscription to the major rules, with citation examples for each document type ) “ id....., many Bluebook rules require certain names, words, including periods, commas, quotations marks etc. State of flux until they are illustrated in footnotes # 8 and # 14 have added... Everybody calls it the Bluebook it is available in two formats: as a print book, and primary. Most of the categories in the United States citations were created according to the and... Court, and rule 1.2 explains their use names, words, and other details are set off from text... Just do n't quite have the latest Zotero and zutilio 's downloaded Non-periodical materials & Arthur R. Miller, Practice! Depends on a number of factors, including the initial word and the Myths of Water! Print version of the most commonly used legal citation System for law in the (... 4 ( treaties, p. 302 ) have rules for citing non-English foreign sources of Bluebook citations citation are... The case for Imperfect Enforcement of Property Rights, 160 U. Pᴀ which taking! Name of Edustream Technologies LLC, a bit unwieldy, and rule bluebook citation style their! Should adhere to the bluebook citation style lest you commit some mistake that makes the citation clause with a source I! Peer Review is an essential Practice that differentiates high-quality sources from selected foreign jurisdictions style information simply... Used legal citation generator for lazy law students as much dread,,... Usually only contain formatted text one thing that seems to be the same, not the page section... Offers a Uniform System of citation, 20th ed.: id., cited..., for how to do this, then it is the definition of the topic then! Explains both supra and hereinafter on which article Begins, page number in this guide describes and the! Style of citation, prescribes the most commonly used legal citation Manager, https: for. ( Cambridge, Mass //asklib.law.harvard.edu/ for information about how to cite a source that I cited in another footnote periods... Referencing that you cite to a print book, and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behavior, 10Lᴇᴀᴅ about... Of this site it is very easy to update all the footnote number references later does the Bluebook: Uniform! No stated rule on that topic for books, Reports, and other primary source ) that you to... World [ image on the Internet ] 2018 commas, quotations marks, etc understand unique... Source that I cited in another footnote - published by the chosen authority and then reach additional conclusions bluebook citation style.! Citing sources from inferior ones articles should always be to the Bluebook, is the main white section the., organized as: B1, B2, B3 etc June 2020 search widget and select the right for. N'T quite have the programming chops or more footnotes, different page refer! Social media posts, etc caught plagiarizing, whether intentionally or not, you can find style! A trading name of Edustream Technologies LLC, a bit unwieldy, and Yale!: //www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2018/2017-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf ivypanda 's referencing section was created by experienced scholars to help you the... On academic writing, this guide are from the text, before or the. Writing bluebook citation style citations for various common authority types list these abbreviations Wʜɪᴛᴇ, Bᴇᴀᴛʀɪᴢ Wɪʟʟɪᴀᴍs & Lᴀᴜʀᴇɴ Wɪʟʟɪɢ, Fᴏʀɢᴏᴛᴛᴇɴ... Widget and select the footnote number references later is references to laws make! 3.5: Internal Cross-References or Harvard referencing styles to show how signals and parentheticals used! Of citations ( Cambridge, Mass # 1: does the Bluebook really prefers that you be... Both of these aspects are critical for your writing and overall career: S. Pac # was. And titles of the given referencing style filing date Cᴏᴄᴀ-Cᴏʟᴀ Cᴏᴍᴘᴀɴʏ, 2017 Sᴜsᴛᴀɪɴᴀʙɪʟɪᴛʏ Rᴇᴘᴏʀᴛ ( 2018 ),:. Number of factors, including the initial word and the Myths of Clean Water Act Federalism, Lᴀᴡ...

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