the zulu kingdom and the colony of natal

When the Transvaalers tried to claim even more land than what was agreed upon, the uSuthu refused. Realising he was surrounded, Pulleine tried to retreat in order to save the endangered camp. Zibhebhu, an arch opponent of Cetshwayo, whose allegiance was more to the colonial order than the royal house, occupied a large tract of territory to Cetshwayo's north, and forced uSuthu loyalists resident in his portion to return to Cetshwayo's area. [2][8], John Robinson remained premier until 1897, a year marked by the annexation of Zululand to Natal. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands). Once more the uSuthu mounted resistance to the annexation, and again Zibhebhus services were called upon. A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony. It was later merged with the province of Natal to form a new province, KwaZulu-Natal. Pearson’s right column off from the border, and Pearson's men were besieged for three months at Eshowe. The first of these forces was the Number II Column at Krantzkop, under Brevet Col A.W. (Topic 6.3) - 15131091 In the brig Salisbury, commanded by James S. King, who had been a midshipman in the navy, Farewell visited Port Natal, St Lucia and Delagoa Bays. Id. Most of the Voortrekkers left by 1843.[2][5]. In the decades 1690 to 1725 over 80% of the slaves were Indians. Under Chelmsford’s orders, the attacking force moved across the Batshe to attack a rocky gorge into which Sihayo's men had retreated, driving their cattle before them. Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of … During 1903–1904 a Native Affairs' Commission, representative of all the states, obtained evidence on the status and conditions of the natives. Natal was proclaimed a British Colony in 1843, and administered from the Cape Colony in 1844. At the same time the settlers, who numbered about 50, sent a memorial to the governor calling attention to the fact that they were acknowledged rulers over a large tract of territory south of the Tugela River, and asking that this territory should be proclaimed a British colony and that a governor and council be appointed. It is the home of the Zulu people and site of their 19th-century kingdom. Mpande gave up to Natal all the territory between the Buffalo and Tugela rivers, now forming Klip River county. But in 1909 an act was passed which placed native affairs in the hands of four district commissioners, gave to the minister for native affairs direct executive authority and created a council for native affairs on which non-official members had seats. The main Zulu army left Nodwengu on 17 January to defend Zululand from the centre column. The inevitable invasion of Zululand began after the ultimatum had expired on 10 January 1879. [2], The demand which the growing trade made upon the one port of Natal, Durban, encouraged the colonists to redouble their efforts to improve the Port of Durban. Commandant Jan Mocke of Winburg (who had helped to besiege Captain Smith at Durban) and others of the "war party" attempted to induce the volksraad not to submit, and a plan was formed to murder Pretorius, Boshof and other leaders, who were now convinced that the only chance of ending the state of complete anarchy into which the country had fallen was by accepting British sovereignty. The left or Number IV Column, commanded by Brevet Col Sir H. Evelyn Wood, concentrated at Utrecht with the object of reaching Ulundi from the north-west. Restrictions in this direction dated as far back as 1865, while in 1896 an act was passed aimed at the exclusion of Indians from the suffrage. The revolt was spectacularly successful for a short period, as the uSuthu under Dinuzulu made good use of the mountainous terrain to repulse a police contingent sent to arrest their leaders. This lead to a Reserve area being set aside for those opposed to the loyalists. Less than thirty years later, in 1906, many of those same Natal Afri… Finally, in deference to the strongly urged views of Sir George Napier, Lord Stanley, in a despatch of 13 December, received in Cape Town on 23 April 1843, consented to Natal becoming a British colony. In April 1842 Lord Stanley, then Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in the second Peel Administration, wrote to Sir George Napier that the establishment of a colony in Natal would be attended with little prospect of advantage, but at the same time stated that the pretensions of the emigrants to be regarded as an independent community could not be admitted. The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony. In 1894 Dinuzulu was pardoned and allowed to return to Zululand, but as a mere induna, or state official, with no chiefly powers or privileges. The Zulu, ‘as was their custom, took no prisoners at Isandlwana, and spared no lives, despite pleas for mercy'’. Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up traces the history of the Zulu kingdom and its British neighbors, the Colony of Natal. The relief of Ladysmith soon led to the evacuation of Natal by the Boer forces, who trekked northwards. They, however, refused to acknowledge Gardiner's authority, and from the Cape government he received no support. In a last-ditch measure to regain power, Cetshwayo's son, Dinuzulu, entered into a treaty with the Transvaal. Having realised the extent of the chaos in Zululand, the British intervened. Source: www.britishbattles.com/. [2], In 1884 the Witwatersrand Gold Rush caused a considerable rush of colonists from Natal to the Transvaal. These disasters included a plague of locusts, drought and the devastating rinderpest epidemic of 1897- which led to a massive decline in homestead production. 28. During the 1830s and early 1840s, the northern part of what is now KwaZulu-Natal was occupied by the Zulu Kingdom while the southern part was, briefly, the Boer republic of Natalia before becoming, in 1843, the British Colony of Natal. As he was one of the few journalists to denounce the system of indenture, his work provides us with a dynamic account of the miseries of the indentured Indian in Natal, to read his report click here. The centre or main force, the Number III Column, advanced from Pietermaritzburg via Greytown to Helpmekaar, under the leadership of Lord Chelmsford himself. He was confined to a smaller area, surrounded by enemies, and his every move was watched by a Resident. Farewell, King and Fynn made independent settlements at various parts of the bay. As the civil war intensified, the British realised that this settlement was simply not workable. The left flank column, however, managed to remain operative. The general election which was held in the following month turned on native policy and on the measures necessary to meet the commercial depression. Harbour works were begun in 1857, piers and jetties were constructed, dredgers imported, and controversy raged over the various schemes for harbour improvement. Size: 1.18MB . The left column was also involved in heavy skirmishing around the Hlobane mountain. Those who continued to espouse the old Zulu order were known as the uSuthu, and were led by Ndabuko kaMpande, Cetshwayo's brother. It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia, and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa, as one of its provinces. In Zululand similar petitions were presented to the British Resident by the uSuthu. [5] After an initial defeat the British were able to conquer Zululand, where they established a protectorate over a sub-divided kingdom. Zululand, traditional region in the northeastern section of present-day KwaZulu-Natal (formerly Natal) province, South Africa. [7] Nonetheless, tensions between the British colonists and the Zulu continued to build, culminating in the Anglo-Zulu War. A landdrost was appointed and the town was renamed Viljoensdorp. The British lost 52 officers, 727 white soldiers and 471 black men of the Native Contingent - a third of Chelmsford's men. With the support of the traders he founded a mission station on the hill overlooking the bay. The Bambatha Rebellion (or the Zulu Rebellion) of 1906 was led by Bambatha kaMancinza (c. This operation was similar to the Zulu tactic of attacking from three sides by means of the main force or chest in the centre, and an extended left and right ‘horn’ on each side. The work of improving the harbour was however continued with vigour, and finally, in 1904, such success was achieved that vessels of the largest class were enabled to enter port. He went on with ten companions, among them Henry Francis Fynn. Zibhebhus followers were attacked by Dinuzulu and forced to flee hastily from the Ndwandwe district. This was due to changes in economic conditions in South Africa's hinterland, and the consequent need to secure sufficient political authority over Africans- which would ensure security and access to labour. When the homeland of KwaZulu, which means "Place of the Zulu" was re-incorporated into the Natal province after the end of apartheid in 1994, the province of Natal, which had existed between 1910 and 1994, was renamed KwaZulu-Natal. [2], As one result of the war, an addition was made to the territory of Natal, consisting of a portion of what had previously been included in the Transvaal. (1911). Type: pdf . [2], In 1834, a petition from Cape Town merchants asking for the creation of a British colony at Natal was met by the statement that the Cape finances would not permit the establishment of a new dependency. [9], The intercolonial commission had dealt with the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole; it was felt that a more local investigation was needed, and in August 1906 a strong commission was appointed to inquire into the condition of the Natal natives. Thereupon Dinizulu surrendered (December 1907) without opposition, and was removed to Pietermaritzburg. The journey to De Kaap by bullock-waggon occupied about six weeks. Colonel A.W. Region: Southern Africa Group: South Africa Area Classification: Colony (Britain) Prior Regime: Zulu Kingdom Key Dates: 1878, Dec 11 – Britain delivers an ultimatum to Zulu Kingdom to submit to British rule 1879, Jan – Britain attacks the Zulu Kingdom after their refusal to submit to British rule 1887, May 19 – Britain defeats the Zulu Kingdom and creates Zululand colony 1897, Dec 31 – Zululand annexed into Natal Colony Following … Sir Bartle Frere was appointed British high commissioner to South Africa in 1879 to realise the Policy of Confederation. They made up the majority of slaves that came from the Far East and were by the 1880s totally integrated into the Cape White and Coloured communities. Those who wished to show their loyalty to Cetshwayo were obliged to move into his central district of the kingdom. A conservative calculation based strictly on records shows over 16 300 slaves from the Indian subcontinent having been brought to the Cape. In an attempt to thwart the attack, stones were also rolled down onto the attackers and after sharp action, the Zulus retreated, with 30 dead, 4 wounded and 10 captured. As he proceeded over the ridge of the Mabaso heights he encountered, to his horror, the Zulu army, a mass of 20 000 strong below. The Natal colony was extended by successive acquisitions—notably that of Zululand, of which the British had assumed control after their victory over the Zulus in the Zulu War (1879). The first Indians arrived during the Dutch colonial era, as slaves, in 1684. On the 17 January Chelmsford and his forces rode to Isandlwana, which he had selected as the site for his next camp. However, it was not until the end of 1845 that an effective administration was installed with Martin West as lieutenant-governor that the power of the Boer Volksraad finally came to an end. Zulu Kingdom: Union of South Africa: Today part of South Africa: The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. The chiefs’ allegiance was to those who had appointed them, and Britain thus effectively began to administer indirect rule over Zululand. The election, which witnessed the return of four Labour members, resulted in a ministerial majority of a somewhat heterogeneous character, and in November 1906 Smythe resigned, being succeeded by Frederick Moor, who in his election campaign had criticized the Smythe ministry for their financial proposals. The second was the Number V Column at Luneberg to safeguard the Transvaal, which had been annexed by the British in 1877. To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years. The Zulu Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.. Pearson, was to cross the lower Tugela River and advance towards Ulundi by way of Eshowe. This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 18:20. The system of indenture has been compared to systems of slavery. When South Africa was formed in 1910, the Zulu king was regarded as a local chief by the South African government, with real power lying with the government. However, emigration was stopped in 1914. [2] As a result of the importation of Indian labourers, Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India. On 8 August 1843, the Natal volksraad unanimously agreed to the terms proposed by Lord Stanley. [4], In 1823 Francis Farewell, formerly a lieutenant in the British navy, with other merchants of Cape Town, formed a company to trade with the natives of the south-east coast. However, even the 10 January date is disputed as many sources say that the ultimatum actually expired on the 11 January 1879. The Kingdom of Zulu , sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north. The commission among other proposals for a more liberal and sympathetic native policy urged the creation of a native advisory Board entrusted with very wide powers. Hitherto the Tugela from source to mouth had been the recognized frontier between Natal and Zululand. This practice continued until the end of slavery in 1838. In May 1905 Sutton was replaced by a coalition ministry under Charles John Smythe, who had been colonial secretary under Hime. Farewell, Fynn and the others went to the royal kraal of Shaka, and, having cured him of a wound and made him various presents, obtained a document, dated 7 August 1824, ceding to "F. G. Farewell & Company entire and full possession in perpetuity" of a tract of land including "the port or harbour of Natal". [2] During the six weeks previous to the relief, 200 deaths had occurred from disease alone, and altogether as many as 8424 were reported to have passed through the hospitals. But this agreement came at a huge cost. Taking a leaf out of Shepstone’s 'native policy', Sir Garnet Wolseley, the new British commander in Natal, divided the kingdom into thirteen territories under appointed chiefs. The hut tax, however, served to divert some of the surplus accruing to an individual homestead head to the British government. Under the overall command of Lord Chelmsford, the British forces -many of them colonials (Whites) or members of the Natal Native Contingent (Blacks) – began carrying out the general plan put in place for the invasion of Zululand. On 20 January Chelmsford’s men arrived and set up camp at Isandlwana hill. The aftermath of these wars resulted in British victory and ultimate control of the region. Dinuzulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the Boer war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated. The districts transferred to Natal were: Vryheid, Utrecht and such portion of the district of Wakkerstroom as was encompassed by a line drawn from the north-eastern corner of Natal, east by Volksrust in a northerly direction to the summit of the Drakensberg Range, along that range, passing just north of the town of Wakkerstroom, to the headwaters of the Pongola River (now called Phongolo River), and thence following the river to the border of the Utrecht district. The Zulu kingdom and the colony of Natal AND Co-operation and conflict on the Highveld. All the rest save Farewell and Fynn speedily returned to the Cape, but the two who remained were joined by three sailors, John Cane, Henry Ogle and Thomas Holstead. The former came as a result of a triangular pact among three governments, which stated that the indentured Indians were to work for the Natal colonial government on Natal's sugar plantations. However, once discovered, they had no choice but to go on the offensive. John Colenso, appointed bishop of Natal, arrived in 1854. As a result the independent Zulu kingdom ends as suddenly under Cetshwayo as it has begun under his uncle Shaka. In August 1903 the Hime ministry resigned and was succeeded by a cabinet under the premiership of George Sutton, the founder of the wattle industry in Natal and one of the pioneers in the coal-mining industry. Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations, so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India. On 11 December 1878, under the flimsy pretext of a few minor border incursions into Natal by Cetshwayo's followers, the Zulu were given an impossible ultimatum- that they should disarm and Cetshwayo should forsake his sovereignty. After the overwhelming victory over the British at Isandlwana, Zulu reserve forces who were not involved in the previous day’s battle retaliated with an attack on the “hastily erected fort” at the small garrison of Rorke’s Drift. In July Chelmsford moved in on oNdini, and in a final onslaught known as the Battle of Ulundi, they secured an overwhelming military success. Meantime, in February 1908, the governor—Matthew Nathan, who had succeeded Henry McCallum in August 1907—had made a tour in Zululand, on which occasion some 1500 of the prisoners taken in the rebellion of 1906 were released. By 1910, nearly 26.85% indentured men returned to India, but most chose to stay and thus constituted the forbearers of the majority of present-day South African Indians. One day later, a depot at Rorke's Drift was attacked against the orders of Cetshwayo, who favoured a defensive strategy. The situation was worsened further by several natural disasters between 1894 and 1897. From the time of the coming of the first considerable body of British settlers dates the development of trade and agriculture in the colony, followed somewhat later by the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country. Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence. In the kingdoms brief, approximately 80-year existence, the Zulus came to dominate and expand their lands in KwaZulu-Natal. Durnford arrived the next day with a detachment to reinforce the camp and take over command. As time went on, however, the Natal government, alarmed at a series of murders of whites in Zululand and at the evidences of continued unrest among the natives, became convinced that Dinuzulu was implicated in the rebellious movement. Durban was soon thronged; and Pietermaritzburg, which was then practically the terminus of the Natal railway, was the base from which nearly all the expeditions to the goldfields were fitted out. Between November 1860 and 1911 (when the system of indentured labour was stopped) nearly 152 184 indentured labourers from across India arrived in Natal. Cambridge University Press. This galvanized Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon who obtained permission from Disraeli to appoint Sir Theophilus Shepstone (known by the Zulu honorific as Somtseu meaning '’father of the nation'’) who had served for 30 years as a Natal administrator, first as Diplomatic Agent to Native Tribes, then as secretary for native affairs, to act as special commissioner to the Transvaal. The Siege of Ladysmith lasted until 28 February 1900, when the town was relieved by forces under Redvers Buller. In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the Crown. The Zulu Kingdom, also called the Zulu Empire, was a Southern African state in what is now South Africa. The Kingdom of Zulu (/ z uː l uː /, Zulu: KwaZulu), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.. Chelmsford encountered some local resistance and mistakenly assumed it to be the main Zulu force. [2], As early as 1893, when Gandhi arrived in Durban, Indians made up almost half of the non-African population, and by 1904 Indians outnumbered whites in Natal. The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa. The offer was declined, but in 1883 the legislative council was remodelled so as to consist of 23 elected and 7 nominated members. Exposing the evils of the system of indenture: Henry Polak. The Zulus managed to cut Colonel C.K. The natives did not volunteer in sufficient numbers, and recourse was had to labour from India. The Republic suffered from disorganized government and poor relations with the Zulus. ‎In 1879, the British colony of Natal invaded the neighboring Zulu kingdom. In 1882 the colony was offered self-government coupled with the obligations of self-defence. The gradual emergence of a permanent labouring class alongside a traditional economy, based on homestead production and cattle-keeping, led to new social divisions in Zulu society. While dependent on the Cape, ordinances had been passed establishing Roman-Dutch law as the law of Natal, and save where modified by legislation, it remained in force. Bhambatha, a chief in the Greytown district who had been deposed for misconduct, kidnapped the regent appointed in his stead. To appease colonial interests, his return was coupled with the annexation of Zululand by Natal in 1897. Hand to hand combat ensued and the Zulu carried the day. The voyage was not successful as a trading venture, but Farewell was so impressed with the possibilities of Natal both for trade and colonization that he resolved to establish himself at the port. On 15 December 1876, Shepstone with 25 troopers from the Natal Mounted Police and others set out from Pietermaritzburg to Pretoria to annex the Transvaal; arriving on 27 January 1877 to a cordial reception. Here the British fought with ‘rifle fire and bayonets’ and the Zulu force, led by Prince Dabulamanzi, suffered 500 casualties in this fruitless engagement. [2], Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually, the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. The commission also called attention to the numerical insufficiency of magistrates and native commissioners in certain parts of Natal. In the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 the British defeated the Zulu army, and Zululandwas annexed to Natal in 1897. Dinuzulu was allowed to retain control of his portion of central Zululand, but the Boers were also acknowledged as owners of the New Republic. In military terms, the alliance proved successful and Zibhebhu's army was forced out of the loyalists' territory. Already under stress from the imposition of the hut tax, many more Zulu men were forced into the Witwatersrand labour market to make ends meet and pay taxes. Today, KwaZulu-Natal is one of South Africa's nine provinces. On 11 December 1878, under the flimsy pretext of a few minor border incursions into Natal by Cetshwayo's followers, the Zulu were given an impossible ultimatum- that they should disarm and Cetshwayo should forsake his sovereignty. All Dutch colonists who had joined the Boer forces during the war were pardoned. How did the Zulu Kingdom rise to power? Everything else left behind was carried off as booty. The Zulu people formed a powerful Zulu Kingdom in 1816, one that was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal in 1897. Boer forces proceeded to Ladysmith and surrounded the town, cutting off its communications from the south. Indentured Indians arriving in Colonial Natal Image source, The need for a controlled labour force: Indentured Labourers. Zululand was formally annexed by the British in 1887 and made a part of Natal in 1897, becoming the eastern part of the colony. Landau , Paul S. , Popular Politics in the History of South Africa, 1400–1948 ( Cambridge University Press , 2010 ). (When a young man, in 1889, he had been convicted of high treason and had been exiled, but in 1897 he had been allowed to return.) Cetshwayo, encouraged by Bishop Colenso and his daughter Harriette- who both visited him in Cape Town-petitioned the British government and was granted permission to visit England to put forward his case for the restoration of the Zulu monarchy. [2], On 14 September 1876, the Colonial Office in the UK received a telegram from Sir Henry Barkly in Cape Town of the imminent collapse of the Transvaal, because the Transvaal's President Burger and his men had been routed after their attack on Sekhukhune and his people the Pedi. Was given authority by the English living at the time the white inhabitants about... January Chelmsford ’ s men arrived and set up camp at Isandlwana British pride had to be restored, other. Topic 5: colonial expansion in South Africa less than thirty years later a... Transvaal, which had been an agitation among the South he founded a mission station on other! Sent for colonists of having incited the Rebellion was at an end once more uSuthu. Now in the Anglo-Zulu war, then the Boar republics in two Boer wars June, and other places industry... In 1879, the Indians becoming market gardeners, farmers, hawkers, and were well by. 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