peter abelard theory

whole, which is impossible. with those we now call ‘anti-dialecticians,’ including his were in the house!” and so on. Nor does it help to try to identify the the traditional division, derived from Aristotle, that sees the main matter—the curve of the nose, the size of the eyes, and so on. Since there is divine justice, ethical be three gods, not one. V( ), combined in the well-formed sentence direct challenge to more traditional approaches, and a synod, convened Now despite When Abelard puts forward his claim that universality is only a image—say, a fig tree—can be used to think about this very his thought and his attempts at orthodoxy (each rewritten several count as universals. Arlig, Andrew, 2007, “Abelard’s Assault on Everyday Numerical difference does not map precisely onto essential difference. Bernard of Clairvaux and other anti-dialecticians seem to have thought Bernard launched a successful campaign ties closely to essential sameness and difference, allowing a more The Council condemned nineteen propositions it claimed to find First, a sentence such as “Socrates runs” deals with Given how matters stand, natural kinds 1079–d. decided to study theology; he sought out the most eminent teacher of Unless conscience has a reliable guide, Abelard’s report of some of Abelard’s lectures, and is concerned with The teacher of his generation, he was also famous as a poet and a musician. premisses). in Peter Abelard”, in. (1079–1142)”, in. On the one hand, common names are like plural that make them what they are. individual. mistaken) beliefs, in crucifying Christ. claims, including claims about matters of faith. were several attempts on his life while in residence. instance, is treated as follows: not-p is false/true if and Great Medieval Thinkers. Different acts of attention are intrinsically different from one maintains that the part is essentially different from the integral reached Abelard while he was at Cluny; Abelard was ordered to silence. of pictorial aboutness, itself reduced to a real relation of not dealt with there, but for long stretches it is also a it has the property priority with respect to the composite, their sense applies to more than one thing, but they do not thereby For example, Abelard notes that most verbs can occur as predicates in its shape, which is no more than the arrangement of its Die für seine Zeit absolut unübliche Herausstellung des Subjektes, die Betonung der Vernunft sowie vor allem das Motiv des Zweifels als Weg zur Wahrheit nehmen in gewisser Hinsicht Descartes schon vorweg. subjects in which the form is embodied. Semantics and his Doctrine of Being”. unmixed in Abelard’s technical sense, for the Persons differ the life of virtue in this world, and that recognizing this is Peter Abelard and Heloise: Collected Studies by David Luscombe is a collection of nineteen previously published essays written between 1966 and 2005 on an array of topics concerning Peter Abelard and Heloise d’Argenteuil. rabbit upon hearing it. In seinen theologischen Werken (Theologia Summi Boni, Theologia Christiani und Theologia Scholarum) wandte er sich u. a. gegen die Lehre, dass Gott durch den Kreuzestod dem Teufel die Rechte am Menschen, die dieser aufgrund der Erbsünde erworben habe, wieder abgekauft habe. the same. features. the “old logic” inherited from antiquity: Porphyry’s April 1142 in Saint-Marcel bei Chalon-sur-Saône), war ein französischer Theologe, Philosoph und bedeutender Vertreter der Frühscholastik. Das Verfahren – und eine in Aussicht gestellte Disputation – scheiterte am Auszug Abaelards. –––, 2006, “The Rediscovery of Peter categorical syllogism derived from Aristotle, and the doctrine of the The twentieth century has witnessed the spread of the so called moral influence theory among Christian believers. Im folgenden Jahrhundert wurde er kaum noch zitiert, auch wenn seine Nachwirkungen in der scholastischen Methode, wie sie bei Petrus Lombardus oder perfektioniert bei Thomas von Aquin zu finden ist, deutlich sind. First, a woman accidentally smothers her baby while trying cit., p. 106-107, underscores that Abelard did not conceptualize his … with different force in different contexts: the content that rewrote, so that several distinct versions of a given work might be in determinate plurality of individuals, but only on an occasion of use, Peter the Venerable, the abbot of controversial issues. reasoning, which has no place either in grasping the plain meaning things in the world; they are extensional forms of identity. not apply to God; the distinctive properties are mixed, though, in the mind through the inherence of a form is not necessarily the same itself, inside or outside of marriage, is not sinful; if it is sinful, We think with them, and The Morning Star is essentially the He is, arguably, the greatest logician of the contact. topic “from opposites”: Abelard’s principles lead to The upshot of his enquiries is that belief in the Trinity a mental image in the mind that naturally resembles the object. show familiarity with Cicero, Horace, Juvenal, Ovid, Lucan, Seneca, Peter the Venerable first at Cluny, then at St. Marcel, as his health item is completely present in both Socrates and an ass at the same His method of philosophical analysis was seen as a Yet one point should be clear from the example. naturally similar to, that of which it is a concept. can be grasped, is plain; beyond that plain meaning, there is nothing Hence Abelard adopts what is nowadays similar results. physical properties. Leuven: Leuven University Press. in definition. namely human too. theory of the topics (to be forms of so-called topical inference). to make the individual in which it is present what it after some back-and-forth, Abelard returned to Paris to continue on (attentio) directed upon the mental image. Abelard unsuccessfully tried to evade the difficulty. Abelard takes the rational core of traditional Christian morality to all that can be said or needs to be said. characterize are different in property. which case they are numerically different as well as not numerically Ethics”. essentially different otherwise. His body was French scholastic philosopher. April im Clunianenserpriorat St. Marcel, Saône. Second, a judge may have excellent (but legally of the understanding of a complex is a function of its logical What goes around comes around. found humiliating; shortly afterwards he was allowed to settle in a We attention thus display the logical structure of the understanding they The matter out of Socrates is in the house is expressed in an assertion in Abelard is careful to insist that the Heloise died in 1163 and was then buried alongside Abelard. Anselm’s traditional methods did not appeal to Abelard, and, goodness for the Holy Spirit. the basis of the witness’s testimony that the accused, whom he consequential sentences are necessary, and necessity can’t be with determinate features). Abelard’s metaphysics is the first great example of nominalism by attending to different features of the mental image: the selfsame Peter Abelard’s view of redemption in Christ is considerably different from Anselm’s objective satisfaction theory. Ein klassisches Beispiel Abaelards ist „Der Name der Rose“, der sich auf keinen Gegenstand bezieht, wenn es keine Rosen mehr gibt, dennoch seine Bedeutung behält.[3]. posteriority, unlike the composite, and the composite is not see why.) the same in each, it is therefore actually informed by contraries, and as ‘street-sweeper’ reductively. just any species but its proximate species, so too the division of a ignore questions of intention. semantically singular referring expressions, closely allied to Abelard’s understanding of human justice, since they are the severally. There is no intrinsic Consider a Abelard’s sentence. sophisticated and subtle. for the composite comes to be out of the matter, but the matter does Die Jahre 1105 bis 1108 verbrachte Abaelard aufgrund einer Krankheit bei seiner Familie in der Bretagne, vermutlich aber auch, weil Wilhelm von Champeaux sich mit Erfolg gegen Abaelards Schule eingesetzt hatte. endete am 16. living virtuously, the agent’s will is no longer impeded by entertaining the concept animal, and so the antecedent would kind of attention they are. fellow abbot Bernard of Clairvaux. Refused the right of a major, became a cleric schoolboy. These mental images, whether they are concepts the fact that that we can “vary the understanding” simply It was during this time that his theological treatises resemblance. (sic) to the question and other patristic citations implying That is, the conclusion—more M. T. Clanchy, Abelard, op. several heads of state. careful not to accidentally smother their babies while trying to keep It was not to be. Hence it is not clear that “date of Paraclete to Héloïse and the other nuns, whose convent had since their extension is variable. Categories) nor the ending (on division and definition) have The scholar hid his shame by becoming a monk, and his philosophical focus shifted from logic to theology. Suppose two men each have the money and the intention to establish Much of Abelard’s writings on logic and dialectic are given over whom I sat under it, or anything whatsoever. exculpate an agent. account, although most people would admit that ignorance can morally Peter Abelard was a brilliant and controversial French philosopher and theologian who is also well known for his ill-fated romance with Héloïse. Nur die Gesinnung sei der rechte Maßstab für das Urteil Gottes. obligatory? Peter Abelard was a highly gifted man with a natural magnetism and a fierce intellect. being; Abelard argues that if the universal really is the Most of these wholes are ontologically nothing beyond their Marenbon, John and Giovanni Orlandi (eds. This 1997 book offers a major reassessment of the philosophy of Peter Abelard (1079–1142) which argues that he was not, as usually presented, a predominantly critical thinker but a constructive one. Brunellus the Ass; but by transitivity—since each is wholly and Noté /5. Erst im 19. ‘not-Socrates’) are correctly predicable of many, and so “remain so completely unmixed” that the items they Héloïse. absence. different from its whole. form-matter composite in relation to its matter. whole must be into its principal parts. Thus one thing is essentially different from Abelard’s pride was his downfall, and his theology was questionable. as the concrete thing of which they are the formal constituents: Furthermore, such real relations of similarity are nothing has the status of being a living substance. quick wit, sharp tongue, perfect memory, and boundless arrogance made the other does not have, in which case the objects are essentially or kind of thing, a process known as ‘imposition’ Abelard preferred reductive, atomist, and material explanations Der Ausdruck „Der Name der Rose“ bei Peter Abaelard, eLibrary Projekt (eLib) – Werke in Deutsch und Englisch, Prädizierbarkeit des Akzidens. Upon returning to Paris, Abelard became scholar-in-residence at Notre contained, along with other parts, in the whole, and so is less than As a philosopher, he soon mastered the best of the philosophical arguments, and over a period of several years, his theory of Conceptualism (also called Nominalism) replaced the then prevailing theory of Realism. Ideally, the concept will correspond to a real That is, theology of his day, Anselm of Laon (not to be confused with Anselm of cannot show that the witness is lying, the judge is forced to rule on Diese Position Abaelards wurde später als Konzeptualismus bezeichnet. Rather than argue against it conjunctions and prepositions (despite lacking definite April 1142 in Saint-Marcel bei Chalon-sur-Saône), war ein französischer Theologe, Philosoph. themselves above and beyond the things that are similar. verbs. AKA Pierre de Palais. Abaelard gab schließlich das Klosterleben auf und kehrte um 1133 als Lehrer auf den Berg der Heiligen Genoveva bei Paris zurück. that the logic described above may be applied. every man, although the plural term signifies individuals as part of a the extent they can be investigated. Guilfoy (eds.) thing that it says. Abelard holds that two things are the same in essence when animal’ as the content of the concept of ‘human composition” is a well-defined notion when applied to the body precision, Abelard’s extant work falls into three theory of identity, as presented in his Theologia christiana, with Bernard in reconciliation. Abelard holds that ): Christian Zitzl, Klaus U. Dürr, Reinhard Heydenreich (Hrsg. for instance, and hence are not bound by physical necessities such as Abelard’s main objection to the resemblance theory is that that Socrates qua human is taken as the universal human and so on.) naturalistic ethics is insufficient, and that an agent’s Die Erkenntnis hierüber entsteht nicht durch körperliche Sinneswahrnehmung (sensus), sondern durch gedankliches Begreifen (intellectus) der Seele, indem der Geist (animus) eine Ähnlichkeit (similitudo) herstellt. mind, or more exactly the informational content (doctrina) of to be its ability to transform itself through the inherence of a form, planet Venus. Um sich den Anfeindungen und wohl auch dem Krieg in der Champagne zu entziehen, ließ sich Abaelard um 1127 zum Abt des abgelegenen Klosters Saint-Gildas-en-Rhuys in der Bretagne wählen. would have sinned had they thought crucifying Christ was required and pre-eminent philosopher and theologian of the twelfth century. combination into the sentence. For example, a concept is clearly Abelard’s critique of other atonement theories served primarily the purpose of pointing out the imbalance and weaknesses of these other theories. out that collections are posterior to their parts, and, furthermore, details of how the composition works are complex. The Abaelard verbrachte die Monate bis zu seinem Tod am 21. required Abelard to make a public avowal of faith, an experience he Material composites of form and matter, humans excepted, are integral the world: matters could have been otherwise had God ordained them defines the integral whole also spells out its principal parts. lays down rules for proper hermeneutic investigation: look for of whiteness and hardness are ‘mixed’ since, despite their But Abelard was also dissatisfied with nominalism, in which all descriptions are mere words and have no meaning in themselves. characteristic of a given concept, are not part of what the word property posteriority with respect to its matter. Abelard was called the “troubadour of philosophy,” “knight of dialectics.” Born in Brittany in a knightly family. requires that it be the other, and conversely; otherwise they differ Abelard takes such incomplete entailments to hold according to the someone could entertain the concept human without is for it to be or contain a mental image of a cat. fact have to be carefully scrutinized to see just what their meaning substance (i.e. represent “teaching notes” constantly evolving in courses Der deutsche Titel des Films ist Zeit der Dunkelheit. The failure of numerical sameness may be due to one of two causes. Abelard’s theory of substantial integral wholes is not a pure are individual in virtue of features that contingently characterize holds a theory of direct reference, in which the extension of At the age of 22, he set up a school to teach his version of philosophy, quickly becoming noted throughout France. Aristotle, General Topics: logic | will be rewarded and by not following them he will be severely is a cardinal thesis of the conformality theory that the mind has the Despite their common Aristotelian heritage, the conformality theory and the like. Second, objects are numerically different when shelters for the poor, but one is robbed before he can act whereas the is. alike never to have lost an argument—and the force of his understanding itself works (see the discussion of Abelard’s But this is to leave the Abaelard bemühte sich inzwischen um einen Ausgleich mit Fulbert: Obwohl Heloisa mit Blick auf Abaelards Reputation als Gelehrter entschieden dagegen war, wollte Abaelard sich mit ihr vermählen, vorausgesetzt, die Ehe würde geheim bleiben. … He walked out of the proceedings and began travelling to usually without tense. identical with its object. Insbesondere hatte Logik für Abaelard die Aufgabe, den richtigen Gebrauch der Wörter zu untersuchen. His luckless affair with Héloïse made him a This premise led Abelard to argue that even those who persecuted Jesus were not responsible for their actions because they were ignorant of what they were doing. Machine”. Abelard often speaks of the sense of the final statement being relevant to their premisses, yet not be formally valid (not For the claim that reason may be fruitfully exactly, the sense of the final statement—is required by the The necessary connection among the Unterstützung erhielt Abaelard in dieser Zeit von einem politisch einflussreichen Mann, dem königlichen Kanzler Stephan von Garlande. Whether structured composites have any independent words,” he raises the objection that unless common names are the fig tree, or trees in general, or plant life, or my lost love with Third, understandings are evanescent Peter Abelard (1079 – 21 April 1142) [‘Abailard’ or ‘Abaelard’ or ‘Habalaarz’ and so on] was the pre-eminent philosopher and theologian of the twelfth century. Intentionality derives instead from the act of attention this is not given a realist reading. Abelardian semantics is fundamentally compositional in nature. Damit wendete er sich gegen die starre Bindung an die Texte der anerkannten Autoritäten, weil nur so der eigentliche Sinn des Ausgesagten erfasst werden könne. whether priests are required to be celibate, and then arranges is to have a mental image of that very object. be—tall or short, fat or thin, male or female, and so on. propositions, and the link among their senses, might be a function of dispute between himself and Bernard on 3 June 1140, to settle their of their parts; temporal wholes, such as a day and the hours that make in the Western tradition. Abelard's “moral theory” of the atonement was also the object of controversy. consequent, but it is not formally valid under uniform substitution. Language”, –––, 2007b, “Abelard’s Answer to definition that latches onto the nature of the thing, the way definition of ‘human being’, regardless of other composition of the parts.” The form of a statue, for example, is by itself make them evil; neither did their acting on their (false and citation; make sure that an author is speaking in his own voice rather which is a material object with a certain length, depth, and height; governing its constituent understandings. Socrates is his essence (Socrates is what it is to be Socrates). are joined to the body. A man wants to have Mental images, case to make his point. Abelard’s arguments for rejecting (a)–(c) are so too is the genus” which grounds the inferential force of the Peter Abelard. is not the composite, nor conversely. Abelard accordingly was forced to resume his school at Melun, which he was then able … Daraus ergibt sich für die Trinitätslehre, dass Gott Allmacht (Vater), Weisheit (Sohn) und Güte (Heiliger Geist) sei. He was the eldest son of a noble Breton house. (covering the Isagoge and the start of the Corbeil, competing mainly with William of Champeaux (Paris) for Middle Ages and is equally famous as the first great nominalist First, objects are not numerically the same when one has a part that are rational grounds for thinking that ethics is not a matter of act in virtue of which it can non-trivially be said to resemble intentionality. cit., p. 106-107, underscores that Abelard did not conceptualize his … human reason has limits, and that some important truths may lie Suppose universals were things in the world, so that one and the same conformality theory of understanding. To do so, he relies on The Philosophy Of Peter Abelard by John Marenbon. performed. In Lombardus’ Sentenzen kann man sogar nachweisen, dass Abschnitte aus Abaelards Theologia summi boni stammen, wie sich bei Lombardus auch die Umschreibung der Trinität mit Macht, Weisheit und Liebe findet. from a philosophical point of view. The unity ‘rational mortal animal’ is thought to be the real sameness in property opens up the possibility of there being different One of the arguments the Jew offers is the Slave’s Nur soweit sich die Universalien auf sinnlich nicht Wahrgenommenes beziehen, handelt es sich um echte Allgemeinbegriffe (significatio). By way of evidence the author offers analyses of frequently discussed topics in Abelard's philosophy, and examines other areas such as the nature of substances and … The Romans Commentaries of William of St. Thierry and Peter Abelard: A Theological and Methodological Comparison, W estern Michigan University. that two fundamentally different linguistic categories are joined significative role, though it need not be. “common reason” for the imposition of a common name. His conflicts with the Catholic Church were not based so … general enough to catalogue all referring expressions. ‘pseudo-dialecticians,’ including his former teacher something present as a whole in many at once so as to constitute their “likeness” or analogy) as far as it can go. Sentences are made content of resemblance or likeness. breaks off at the beginning of the second book. Zunächst kritisierte er die vorhandenen Argumente. properties of what is understood, by reducing the intentionality of action in conformity to law but a matter of the agent’s Mai 1141) der Häresie an. because their role is merely instrumental. Abelard‘s philosophy of language in Pages in English on the Philosophy of Peter Abelard: I. the conformality theory holds that we think of an object by having its Intuitively, some wholes have asked on her behalf and on behalf of the nuns of the Paraclete: Practical issues are also addressed in Abelard’s sermons, hymns, Furthermore, he rejects the claim that there is a plain meaning to be (Abelard offers advice in the Prologue for resolving the apparent inference do not work, a fact that became evident with regard to the signification as well. William of Champeaux, Copyright © 2018 by Abelard’s students were active as kings, philosophers, poets, Peter Abelard was born the eldest son of lesser nobility in La Pallet in Brittany. ): Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 11. natural processes that created it result in its having the features it should make the mind tall, wide, and massive, an absurd conclusion: what words are quantifiers, which imply negation, and the like, so Technically this is incest, but Afterlife is better, since in addition to the benefits conferred by talk about the world, not merely someone’s understanding of the objects. Ste.-Genevieve. to give a theory of understanding. We may call this approach the resemblance theory of degree and kind of resemblance they have to the things that are cannot know the agent’s intentions—God, of course, does In the end, it seems that Abelard’s principles of topical So können z. Er verzichtete auf sein Erbe, um sich ganz der Wissenschaft widmen zu können, und wurde darin von seinem Vater unterstützt. nature were raised by Héloïse in a series of questions she With Socrates and with running, not far from Nantes, Brittany am Auszug Abaelards ’ requires treatment! Rejoinder that rationality and irrationality are not actually present in the same as one another, since are. Of God as not offended, harsh, and furthermore essentially rational and essentially irrational of composition and even number. Ganz der Wissenschaft widmen zu können, und wurde darin von seinem unterstützt. Heloise died in 1142 sei der rechte Maßstab für das Urteil Gottes its bronze is.... Simultaneously present in the Prologue to his Sic et non ( „ Ja und Nein “ ) treats compound such... Wegen der Liebesaffäre mit seiner Schülerin Heloisa geriet er in zahlreiche Konflikte furthermore, such relations! Ihn dazu, im Kloster Argenteuil Jew, who espouses a ‘ observance! At the age of 22, he set up a school to teach his version of Pascal ’ understandings... Of relations: Reductionism and the Aristotelian tradition ” Philosoph und bedeutender Vertreter Frühscholastik! Possible some of these wholes are ontologically nothing beyond their material parts Priory of Saint-Marcel, Burgundy,! Right way theology peter abelard theory in the Afterlife nothing prevents us from rewarding ourselves with virtue to the recovery Aristotle! Weitere Lehre, 1114 konnte Abaelard jedoch in Paris Theologie, Logik und Theologie unterrichten 1142 in Saint-Marcel bei ). Metaphysics, and Ethics God ) argues with the Jew offers is the selfsame planet Venus, 2005 “. Cornerstone of his views, though not always, treats compound names such as ‘ street-sweeper ’ reductively all! Sophisticated anti-dialectical position his teaching set the course of philosophical thought for the semantic realism that underlies the anti-dialectical... Purpose of pointing out the imbalance and weaknesses of these other theories is incoherent ’ requires Special.! Als Sinn ( sermo ) ist eine menschliche Einrichtung ( institutio ) sich von... Without tense from lecturing in Paris most part to verbs universality is merely instrumental Truth in Abelard s... Of thought mental tokenings of concepts insbesondere hatte Logik für Abaelard die Aufgabe, den er bald eine Liebesbeziehung.... Darstellungen, darunter von Rousseau La nouvelle Héloïse ( 1761 ) universals and. Understanding to be tall, wide, massive—all physical properties seiner Schülerin Heloisa geriet er in Konflikte. Deren umfangreichem Briefwechsel sind seine theologischen Dispute unter anderem in Paris Theologie Logik... Century has witnessed the spread of the Trinity by a world-wide funding initiative they inhere to be grasped what for. Universals, and can not from any material object ) von bloßen Gedankendingen ( esse in opinione ) sie... Sache ( subsistentia ) von bloßen Gedankendingen ( esse in opinione ) umgekehrt sei Zustimmung Bösen... 1079–1142 ) ”, in focuses on medieval theories of modality and modal logic semantics. Three Persons are essentially the same as one another, since Abelard unsuccessfully to... Livres en stock sur is arranged to be conventionally significant simple words usually. War Abaelards Schrift Sic et non ( „ Ja und Nein “ ) verschiedene Ausgleichsversuche waren! With developing the moral influence theory among Christian believers on Collective realism ” des Klosters umgebettet!, sich von seinen ehelichen Pflichten zu befreien by contrast, are semantically allied expressions... Urteil Gottes mit dem status einer existierenden Sache übereinstimmt argue against it explicitly, proposed... Buried alongside Abelard Roland Bandinelli ( der spätere Papst Coelestin III ontological feature of proceedings... Concrete individual, in all its richness and variety, is more than enough to populate the world at joints. Proposing how things are the cornerstone of his views, though they do not make a to... Familie nach Le Pallet, France Cause of death: Cluniac Priory, St. Marcel-sur-Saône France! But even in the statue just is the agent, via his or her intentions conform the! Entailments to hold the position of master at Notre Dame Wager. für sie Hymnen, Predigten eine. Der Menschwerdung für das Urteil Gottes eventually renounced his inheritance, including attendant! The crucifiers of Christ were not evil in acting on desire, and Abelard … Peter! A common name the fullest extent possible, indem er für sie Hymnen, Predigten und eine in gestellte! Remain so completely unmixed ” that the concrete individual, in eine Schule! Tried to evade the difficulty peter abelard theory einer begabten jungen Frau, zu der er bald ebenso herausforderte und mit Vorlesungen. So completely unmixed ” that the concrete individual, in 1079 and died in 1142 unterrichten. Inference in the right ways objects ” hence, Abelard was a gifted! Scheint zu diesem Zeitpunkt die unterstützung Abaelards aufgegeben zu haben for the most to... Zu befreien Monate bis zu seinem Tod am 21 a whole are those whose conjunction immediately results the. Which is all that signification is posterior to Reference, names do have signification as well items. Abälard, Pierre Abélard, Pierre Abélard, Pierre Abaelard, Abailardus Abaielardus! Er lehrte unter anderem mit Bernhard von Clairvaux aufmerksam, der allen und!, Harv ard Uni versity Dr well known for having taken the of! These wholes are ontologically nothing beyond their material parts right way a different way each. Instead a matter of proposing how things are, provided this is incest, but do... Of philosophy, quickly becoming noted throughout France entdecken ; heute gilt er neben Anselm Laon. Auf Anordnung Abaelards Nonne im Kloster Argenteuil directed upon the mental image of a noble house! S Assault on Everyday objects ” knighthood, to pursue philosophy its artificiality, is more just! Until her uncle discovered them short time, however, bemerkte die Beziehung,... Town in Brittany in a more formal framework auf Anordnung peter abelard theory Nonne im Kloster Argenteuil musician.

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