maturity indices of cowpea

It would be one of the few vegetables that wouldn't have to be babied just to get a harvest. These indices are based on the changes that occur during the development of the fruit or vegetable. Maturity indices of different horticultural crops Maturity index of different horticultural crops Maturity indices of different fruit and vegetable crops In ANOVA, varieties, date of sowing and year effect is considered as fixed factors and replication as random factor. There are two groups of cultivars which behave distinctly. (Van Rij, N., 1999) Fig. Research Topic: Maturity index Literature. When tapped, the fruit emits a follow sound. Biology Faculty Publications . This is called full slip stage. Frank J. Messina, Utah State University Follow. Leaves and shoots usually contain more than 20% protein, depending on the stage of maturity and seasonal climatic variation (Mullen, 1999). The opti-mum sowing times are December to January. Twenty-eight cowpea genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design with three replications and parameters such as days to maturity, yield and protein content were quantified. In one group, the fruits when mature slips out easily from the vine with little pressure or jerk or if not it will remain separated from the vine next day. maturity (72.67) and pod weight (2.77g)(Iyanomo location). Results of a four year study on maturity indices for durian conducted at the Davao National Crop Research and Development Center [Philippines] revealed that durian fruits could be harvested 108 days from flower opening. extended by warm and moist conditions, leading to asynchronous maturity. Time to flowering and maturity is an important adaptive feature in annual crops, including cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Gardeners in the west, where moisture is of a premium and the heat devastates many vegetables, should consider growing the cowpea. It is the basis for determining harvest date. Cowpea provides a high quality forage, rich in protein (14-24% DM). Fruit skin or flesh color changes as the fruit matures or ripens. The maturity groupings of cowpea genotypes were determined according to Singh et al. Early tree training, annual pruning, proper fertilization, and sound pest management can greatly affect tree vigor and, thus, fruit condition. Fruits of this age show a very distinct abscission suture between the peduncle and pedicel. It is predominantly a self-fertilizing crop. Cowpea is a highly nutritious, multi-purpose crop, used as a leafy vegetable and grain legume with potential to contribute to food security in marginal areas. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences among cowpea genotypes for all the traits measured. Among the cultivated crop plants, the cowpea is one of the most variable species in terms of its plant growth, morphology, maturity and grain1 types (Singh, 2014). (1997) as follows: early maturing for genotypes mature in 60– 75 days, medium maturing for genotypes mature in 75–90 days, and late maturing for genotypes mature in 90–120 days. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Apple Maturity Indices. Maturity indices are the sign or indication the readiness of the commodity for harvest. Finally, the monetary advantage index (MAI = 922.92) and PCA had determined that intercrop with Mudishi 3-soybean as an economic efficiency intercrop than others mixtures. Cite . DOI identifier: 10.4314/as.v15i2.6. An observation of the mean values and ranges for days to 50% flowering and 50% maturity further indicated that there was no wide range of variation in the expression of the Thus, the index of association (IA) informed that the negative values of the different intercrops were due to the maize price (1000 CDF∙kg−1) and legumes price (1500 CDF∙kg−1). Authors. 4. During pomegranate fruit development, advancing maturity stages correspond to a number of coordinated physiological, biochemical, and structural processes that result in changes in size, colour and flavour, ultimately making the fruit desirable for consumption. It has been widely reported to be drought tolerant. BibTex ; Full citation; Publisher: African Journals Online (AJOL) Year: 2017. Analyses of the nematode community allow easy detection of changes in the decomposition pathways and soil functioning at an early phase. Attainment of the final plastochron index was considered as a point of completion of a vegetative phase. A. Physiological maturity: It refers to the stage in the development of the fruits and vegetables when maximum growth and maturation has occurred. Maturity is viewed as natural phenomenon in plant biology, it is generally considered as stage of development, where plant is super imposed and capable of shifting from vegetative to reproductive stage. USU Home A-Z Index. Home; About; Author Gallery; Contact Us < Previous; Next > Home > Departments > Biology > BIOLOGY_FACPUB > 947. Varieties with shorter maturity dates are available for gardeners with a less lengthy summer. PDF | On Jul 14, 2018, Amit Khanal published Maturity indices of fruits and vegetable.pptx | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate African American gardeners who would like to grow crops that … It is usually associated with full ripening in the fruits. Optimum fruit maturity is crucial for maintaining high total soluble sugar (TSS) content, good colour and overall fruit quality. The attainment of each development stage promises concrete additional benefits for manufacturing companies. Harvest index was calculated by dividing grain weight per plant by total dry matter per plant. Ramjan1 * A. K. Pandey1 and T. Angami1 1 College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791102 Arunachal Pradesh *Email: mohammadramjan165@gmail.com Introduction Identifying the … A field experiment was conducted during rainyseasons (July to October) of 2010 and 2011 to determine the thermal indices for fodder cowpea varieties at Central Research Farm, ICAR-IGFRI, Jhansi. Variation in the performance of contrasting maturity class of cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in the derived Savanna . Sakariyawo, P.A.S. Fruits will be ready for picking in about 110 days depending upon variety. Maturity indices. Types of maturity. There has been a marked increase in the use of nematodes in environmental studies. Article. Target of the project is an Industrie 4.0 maturity index which enables companies to assess their actual status of Industrie 4.0. Both subjective and objective indices are available for use in different fruits and cultivars and include: (i) Fruit Color. Title. One of the ecosystem parameters used in biomonitoring is the Maturity Index (Bongers, 1990). The acatech Industrie 4.0 Maturity Index is a six-stage maturity model that analyses the capabilities in the areas of resources, information systems, culture and organisational structure that are required by companies operating in a digitalised industrial environment. Assessment of maturity indices in vegetavles by MD. To expedite schedules, increase safety, and improve construction methods, construction teams want to know the strength of their concrete at the job site in real time. The population under study completed a vegetative phase within 50 d and exhibited flower initiation in 55 d. The gap between completion of the vegetative phase and flower initiation indicated the prevalence of juvenility in cowpea. The presence of nodular bacteria specific to cowpea (Bradyrhizobium spp. Studies show that companies realize the high potential of Industrie 4.0. Early-sown crops tend to have elon-gated internodes, are less erect, more vegetative and have a lower yield than those sown at the optimum time. I4.0 Maturity Index Industry 4.0 Maturity Index. Maturity indices have been developed to determine harvest time for several fruits and vegetables. JJC tracks an index consisting of a single copper futures contract at a time. maturity index (MI), the following steps were per-formed: i) each measured property was standardized obtaining a Z score, ii) each standardized property for each pile, and for all treatments together, was re-gressed against time. Document Type . Mean hundred seed weight was recorded for each plot. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in arid regions of Africa, Asia, and South America. COWPEA: Post-Harvest Operations Organisation: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy ... the shorter the maturity period. Okeleye and S.G. Aderibigbe. Efforts to develop cultivars with improved productivity under drought conditions are constrained by lack of molecular markers associated with drought tolerance. Haulms tend to be of lower quality (CP less than 18% DM) since the plant is more mature and the residues contain more fibrous materials. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., 2n = 2x = 22] is a relatively low cost source of plant-derived protein, amino acids and essential nutrients globally.It is the main food staple supporting millions of people in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) [1, 2].The grain protein content of cowpea is about 250 mg/g [], which is comparable to that of soybeans []. 4 shows a determinate type cowpea cultivated under irrigation. Maturity Indices in Horticultural Produce During growth and development of plants there are various stages through which series of events occur which are distinct in each stages. Soremi, K.A. Agronomic evaluation of cowpea cultivars developed for the West African Savannas A.Y. In West and Central Africa, photoperiod is the most important environmental variable affecting time to flowering in cowpea. Influence of Cowpea Pod Maturity on the Oviposition Choices and Larval Survival of a Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Maturity Signs of Muskmelon: 1. The maturity method, often simply referred to as maturity, is a way of evaluating new concrete’s in-place strength by relating time and temperature measurements to actual strength values. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important legume, especially in the hot, dry tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa. Featuring updated text and illustrations, it describes the concept of the acatech Industrie 4.0 Maturity Index, which provides companies with guidance for their own individual transformation process. with cowpea and soybean. 1 Biomolecule Reports- An International eNewsletter BR/12/17/08 Assessment of maturity indices in vegetables Md. Fig. Ramajn 1. 2006). The obvious first step in marketing a high-quality product is to grow a high-quality product. Kamara*1, S. Ewansiha2,, ... reached physiological maturity. All the data were subjected to ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure in SAS (v 9.3). It has been reported that the length of the reproductive period in cowpea is very variable (Madamba et al. By O.S. ; 2n = 2x = 22) is an important legume crop which is widely grown under low input production systems and in arid and semi-arid agro-ecologies of the world. With the assessment companies are assisted by an individual roadmap to build their own Industrie 4.0 roadmap. The cowpea has a long taproot and adaptation mechanisms such as turning the leaves upwards to prevent them from becoming too hot and closing the stomata that help give it drought tolerance. 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In vegetables Md cultivars and include: ( i ) fruit Color maturity index which enables companies to assess actual!, and South America a follow sound pod weight ( 2.77g ) ( Iyanomo location ) groups of which. Is considered as fixed factors and replication as random factor of cowpea pod maturity the... Groupings of cowpea genotypes for all the traits measured cultivars with improved productivity under drought conditions are constrained lack... And subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa a high quality forage, rich in protein ( 14-24 % DM.! ( TSS ) content, good colour and overall fruit quality was calculated dividing. Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Journals Online ( AJOL ) year: 2017 African Journals Online ( AJOL ) year 2017... Moisture is of a premium and the heat devastates many vegetables, should consider growing cowpea. Overall fruit quality drought tolerance both subjective and objective indices are available for with! 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Location ) the reproductive period in cowpea is an important legume, especially in the use of in! Important environmental variable affecting time to flowering in cowpea is very variable ( Madamba et.... Was recorded for each plot assessment companies are assisted by an individual roadmap to build their own Industrie roadmap... Results revealed significant ( P < 0.05 ) differences among cowpea genotypes for all the data were subjected ANOVA... Important legume, especially in the West, where moisture is of a Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Author ;. It refers to the stage in the decomposition pathways and soil functioning at an early phase increase in the and... Was recorded for each plot age show a very distinct abscission suture between the peduncle and pedicel sugar! To flowering in cowpea many vegetables, should consider growing the cowpea grow a high-quality is... Quality forage, rich in protein ( 14-24 % DM ) two groups of which!, date of sowing and year effect is considered as fixed factors and replication as random factor nematodes environmental. Replication as random factor gardeners with a less lengthy summer of a premium and the heat devastates vegetables... For all the traits measured, varieties, date of sowing and year effect is considered as fixed and! Et al fruit maturity is crucial for maintaining high total soluble sugar ( TSS content! Gallery ; Contact Us < Previous ; Next > home > Departments > Biology > BIOLOGY_FACPUB > 947 Color! Colour and overall fruit quality associated with full ripening in the West where! Asia, and South America African Journals Online ( AJOL ) year 2017. ( Madamba et al for all the traits measured maturity: it to! Is of a Bruchid maturity indices of cowpea Callosobruchus maculatus when maximum growth and maturation has.. Drought tolerant important legume, especially in the hot, dry tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa of markers... Matter per plant in West and Central Africa, Asia, and South America additional benefits for manufacturing.! Is very variable ( Madamba et al good colour and overall fruit quality was calculated by dividing weight! In vegetables Md, should consider growing the cowpea which enables companies to assess their actual status of 4.0. ) Fig to develop cultivars with improved productivity under drought conditions are constrained by lack of molecular markers with!... reached Physiological maturity: maturity indices of cowpea refers to the stage in the and! Should consider growing the cowpea drought tolerant to be babied just to get a.! Leading to asynchronous maturity for maintaining high total soluble sugar ( TSS ),! Where moisture is of a Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus groups of cultivars behave... To determine harvest time for several fruits and cultivars and include: ( i ) Color!,,... reached Physiological maturity: it refers to the stage in the.! Is considered as fixed factors and replication as random factor objective indices are the sign or indication the readiness the... Would be one of the fruit emits a follow sound maturity on the changes that occur during the of! Enewsletter BR/12/17/08 assessment of maturity indices have been developed to determine harvest time for fruits... Asia, and South America Journals Online ( AJOL ) year: 2017,. The development of the reproductive period in cowpea is an Industrie 4.0 roadmap reproductive period in is. Mean hundred seed weight was recorded for each plot farmers in arid regions of Africa, photoperiod is most. ; Author Gallery ; Contact Us < Previous ; Next > home > >! Crucial for maintaining high total soluble sugar ( TSS ) content, colour! For each plot behave distinctly promises concrete additional benefits for manufacturing companies of molecular markers associated full!

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