It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy 's book Geography, written c. 150. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, son of Philopator and Arsinoë, was a child when he came to the throne, and a series of regents ran the kingdom. 解説 8vo. With one empire after another falling to Macedon and the Seleucid empire, the Ptolemies had little choice but to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted over 150 years. Its scholars were housed in the same sector and funded by Ptolemaic rulers. Francis.  It is said that he borrowed the official manuscripts of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides from Athens and forfeited the considerable deposit he paid for them in order to keep them for the Library rather than returning them. Philopator was devoted to orgiastic religions and to literature. The wife of Ptolemy II, Arsinoe II, was often depicted in the form of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, but she wore the crown of lower Egypt, with ram's horns, ostrich feathers, and other traditional Egyptian indicators of royalty and/or deification; she wore the vulture headdress only on the religious portion of a relief. In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. Map of Ancient Egypt 2500 BCE Section 3: The Middle Kingdom The First Intermediate Period The last large pyramid of the Old Kingdom was erected for Pepy II, after a 96 year reign (c. 2246-2152 BCE). Subsequently, uprising and social unrest were frequent, especially by the early third century BC. This inbreeding was intended to stabilize the family; wealth a… "The Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BC)". In the 270s BC, Ptolemy II defeated the Kingdom of Kush in war, gaining the Ptolemies free access to Kushite territory and control of important gold deposits south of Egypt known as Dodekasoinos. At least from about 230 BC, these land grants were provided to machimoi, lower ranking infantry usually of Egyptian origin, who received smaller lots comparable to traditional land allotments in Egypt. In 170 BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt and captured Philometor, installing him at Memphis as a puppet king. Cleopatra's children by Antony were spared by Octavian and given to his sister (and Antony's Roman wife) Octavia Minor, to be raised in her household. The academies and libraries of Alexandria proved vital in preserving much Greek literary heritage. Ptolemy I Soter, (born 367/366 bc, Macedonia—died 283/282, Egypt), Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–285 bc) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which reigned longer than any other dynasty established on the soil of the Alexandrian empire and only succumbed to the Romans in 30 bc. [Note 1] Alexandria, a Greek polis founded by Alexander, became the capital city and a major center of Greek culture, learning, and trade for the next several centuries.  Temples were models of the cosmic world with basic plans retaining the pylon, open court, hypostyle halls, and dark and centrally located sanctuary. In 145 BC, he was killed in the Battle of Antioch. Under Roman rule, Egypt was governed by a prefect selected by the emperor from the Equestrian class and not a governor from the Senatorial order, to prevent interference by the Roman Senate. Hemingway, Colette, and Seán Hemingway. (2019). Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy, one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt. However, some of these territories were lost near the end of his reign as a result of the Second Syrian War. Ptolemaic Egypt was highly stratified in terms of both class and language. A five-day festival was inaugurated in honour of the Theoi Philopatores and their victory. Through her offspring, the Ptolemaic line intermarried back into the Roman nobility for centuries. She reigned as queen "philopator" and pharaoh with various male co-regents from 51 to 30 BC when she died at the age of 39. He was succeeded by his infant son Ptolemy VI Philometor.  Mercenaries were paid a salary (misthos) of cash and grain rations; an infantryman in the third century earned about one silver drachma daily. The figure also exemplifies the fusing of Greek and Egyptian art.  Accordingly, naval forces were divided into four fleets: the Alexandrian, Aegean, Red Sea, and Nile River..  Kleroi grants could be extensive: a cavalryman could receive at least 70 arouras of land, equal to about 178,920 square metres, and as much as 100 arouras; infantrymen could expect 30 or 25 arouras and machimoi at least five auroras, considered enough for one family.  For example, a relief in the temple of Kom Ombo is separated from other scenes by two vertical columns of texts.  For example, Head Attributed to Arsinoe II deified her as an Egyptian goddess. The Ptolemies drained the marshes of the Faiyum to create a new province of cultivatable land. After Ptolemy VI's death a series of civil wars and feuds between the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty started and would last for over a century. It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Nevertheless, his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC secured the kingdom. In his fight for control over Egypt, Ptolemy I had relied on a combination of imported Greek troops, mercenaries, native Egyptians, and even prisoners of war.  The Ptolemaic military initially served a defensive purpose, primarily against competing diadochi claimants and rival Hellenistic states like the Seleucid Empire. Also, in 123 BC, when there was trouble in Upper Egypt between the towns of Crocodilopolis and Hermonthis, the negotiators sent from Crocodilopolis were the young men attached to the gymnasium, who, according to the Greek tradition, ate bread and salt with the negotiators from the other town.  At first, artworks existed separately in either the Egyptian or the Hellenistic style, but over time, these characteristics began to combine. The navy operated throughout the eastern Mediterranean, Aegean Sea, and Levantine Sea, and along the Nile, patrolling as far as the Red Sea towards the Indian Ocean. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, Egypt - Phoenicia - Palestine (Kiepert, Atlas Antiquus - Map 3).jpg, 1123 of '(F. C. Schlosser's Weltgeschichte für das deutsche Volk. Ptolemy III had introduced an important innovation in 238 BC by holding a synod of all the priests of Egypt at Canopus.  This sistrum appears to be an intermediate hue, which fits with its date at the beginning of the Ptolemaic empire.  It was a key academic, literary and scientific centre in antiquity..  Josephus thus places the origins of the Septuagint in the 3rd century BC, when Demetrius and Ptolemy II lived. Temples remained the focal point of social, economic, and cultural life; the first three reigns of the dynasty were characterized by rigorous temple building, including the completion of projects left over from the previous dynasty; many older or neglected structures were restored or enhanced.  The navy reached its height following the victory of Ptolemy II during the First Syrian War (274–271 BC), succeeding in repelling both Seleucid and Macedonian control of the eastern Mediterranean and the Aegean. Throughout the 160s and 150s BC, Ptolemy VI has also reasserted Ptolemaic control over the northern part of Nubia. The wealth of Egypt was owed in large part to the unrivalled fertility of the Nile, which served as the breadbasket of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Greeks Conquer Egypt The Ptolemies came to rule Egypt after the arrival of Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE) in 332 BCE. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía)  was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. Philometor eventually regained the throne. Initially, Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon, and then as regent for both Philip III and Alexander's infant son Alexander IV of Macedon, who had not been born at the time of his father's death. Fleeing into exile, Cleopatra would attempt to raise an army to reclaim the throne. By Cleopatra's time, Rome had achieved a massive amount of influence over Egyptian politics and finances to the point that the Roman senate was eventually declared the guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty by Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII, who had paid vast sums of Egyptian wealth and resources in tribute to the Romans in order to regain and secure his throne following the rebellion and brief coup led by his older daughters, Tryphaena and Berenice IV. Of the many foreign groups who had come to settle in Egypt, the Greeks, were the most privileged. Alexandria remained the capital of the country, but Egypt itself became a Roman province.  The Ptolemaic navy also protected the kingdom's lucrative maritime trade and engaged in antipiracy measures, including along the Nile. Ptolemy, a Macedonian Greek who was one of Alexander's most trusted generals and confidants, won control of Egypt from his rivals and declared himself pharaoh. This was only curtailed nineteen years later when Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205–181 BC) succeeded in subduing them, though underlying grievances were never extinguished, and riots erupted again later in the dynasty. According to Plutarch, the Alexandrians believed that Alexander the Great's motivation to build the city was his wish to "found a large and populous Greek city that should bear his name." Legend and numerous ancient sources claim that she died by way of the venomous bite of an asp, though others state that she used poison, or that Octavian ordered her death himself. It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Decorations on the first pylon of the Temple of Isis at Philae emphasise the Ptolemaic claim to rule the whole of Nubia. He spent lavishly on making Alexandria the economic, artistic and intellectual capital of the Hellenistic world. Following Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 BC, a succession crisis erupted among his generals. . Not to be confused with Category:Ptolemy's 3rd African Map, covering maps of Egypt made upon the lines established by Claudius Ptolemy's Geography. By now Rome was the arbiter of Egyptian affairs, and annexed both Libya and Cyprus. High quality images of maps.  Greek-style art was also created during this time and existed in parallel to the more traditional Egyptian art, which could not be altered significantly without changing its intrinsic, primarily-religious function. Studies in Waterborne Power, Cambridge 2013, 172-184", "The Great Library of Alexandria?". They were partly spread as allotment-holders over the country, forming social groups, in the country towns and villages, side by side with the native population, partly gathered in the three Greek cities, the old Naucratis, founded before 600 BC (in the interval of Egyptian independence after the expulsion of the Assyrians and before the coming of the Persians), and the two new cities, Alexandria by the sea, and Ptolemais in Upper Egypt. It passed, with the rest of Egypt, into Roman hands in 30 BC, and became the second city of the Roman Empire. From the mid third century, Ptolemaic Egypt was the wealthiest and most powerful of Alexander's successor states, and the leading example of Hellenistic civilization. Beginning under Ptolemy I Soter, Macedonians and other Greeks were given land grants and allowed to settle with their families, encouraging tens of thousands of Greek mercenaries and soldiers to immigrate where they became a landed class of royal soldiers. Soldiers were also given land grants called kleroi, whose size varied according to the military rank and unit, as well as stathmoi, or residences, which were sometimes in the home of local inhabitants; men who settled in Egypt through these grants were known as cleruchs. Cleopatra VII, the last of the Ptolemaic line, was often depicted with characteristics of the goddess Isis; she usually had either a small throne as her headdress or the more traditional sun disk between two horns. With the deaths of Cleopatra and Caesarion, the dynasty of Ptolemies and the entirety of pharaonic Egypt came to an end. , A common stele that appears during the Ptolemaic Dynasty is the cippus, a type of religious object produced for the purpose of protecting individuals. Philometor was succeeded by yet another infant, his son Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator.  The lucrative nature of military service under the Ptolemies appeared to have been effective at ensuring loyalty. Under Cleopatra, who sought to restore Ptolemaic power, Egypt became entangled in a Roman civil war, which ultimately led to its conquest by Rome as the last independent Hellenistic state. The wealth of Egypt could now be harnessed for Alexander's conquest of the rest of the Achaemenid Empire. 書名 The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt. To this end the Roman administration made no change to the Ptolemaic system of government, although Romans replaced Greeks in the highest offices. The military expanded and secured these territories while continuing its primary function of protecting Egypt; its main garrisons were in Alexandria, Pelusium in the Delta, and Elephantine in Upper Egypt. If Alexandria perpetuated the name and cult of the great Alexander, Ptolemais was to perpetuate the name and cult of the founder of the Ptolemaic time. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was diverse and cosmopolitan. Their naval forces met at Actium, where the forces of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeated the navy of Cleopatra and Antony. Framed in by the barren hills of the Nile Valley and the Egyptian sky, here a Greek city arose, with its public buildings and temples and theatre, no doubt exhibiting the regular architectural forms associated with Greek culture, with a citizen-body Greek in blood, and the institutions of a Greek city.  That is confirmed by historian Flavius Josephus, who writes that Ptolemy, desirous to collect every book in the habitable earth, applied Demetrius Phalereus to the task of organizing an effort with the Jewish high priests to translate the Jewish books of the Law for his library. Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter invaded Egypt and declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. This strategy not only helped to legitimize their rule, but also placated the general population. To legitimize their rule and gain recognition from native Egyptians, the Ptolemies adopted the title of pharaoh and had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress; otherwise, the monarchy rigorously maintained its Hellenistic character and traditions. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (/ ˌ t ɒ l ɪ ˈ m eɪ.ɪ k /; Koinē Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, romanized: Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an ancient Hellenistic state based in Egypt.It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. The only Ptolemaic Queens to officially rule on their own were Berenice III and Berenice IV. Nevertheless, the Ptolemies remained generally supportive of the Egyptian religion, which always remained key to their legitimacy. The multiethnic nature of the Ptolemaic army was an official organizational principle: soldiers were evidently trained and utilized based on their national origin; Cretans generally served as archers, Libyans as heavy infantry, and Thracians as cavalry. These sordid dynastic quarrels left Egypt so weakened that the country became a de facto protectorate of Rome, which had by now absorbed most of the Greek world.  Hellenistic culture would acquire an important influence on Kush at this time. Ptolemaic Egypt was a culturally and intellectually lively place. When Antiochus withdrew, the brothers agreed to reign jointly with their sister Cleopatra II.  The main naval bases were at Alexandria and Nea Paphos in Cyprus. Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. Other prominent scholars include the mathematicians Conon of Samos and Apollonius of Perge.. Unter Mitwirkung des Verfassers bearbeitet von ... G. L. Kriegk. The most distinguished scholar at Ptolemy III's court was the polymath and geographer Eratosthenes, most noted for his remarkably accurate calculation of the circumference of the world. "Queen Arsinoë II, the Maritime Aphrodite and Early Ptolemaic Ruler Cult". He then may have devoted his retirement to writing a history of the campaigns of Alexander—which unfortunately was lost but was a principal source for the later work of Arrian. In return, the priests undertook to erect a statue group in each of their temples, depicting the god of the temple presenting a sword of victory to Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III. After this defeat Egypt formed an alliance with the rising power in the Mediterranean, Rome. Ptolemaic Period Egypt After Alexander’s death of a malarial fever in 323 B.C., the Macedonian commander in Egypt, Ptolemy, who was the son of Lagos, one of Alexander’s seven bodyguards, managed to secure for himself the satrapy (provincial governorship) of Egypt. Most distinctively is the color of the faience. Alexander the Great conquered Persian-controlled Egypt in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Achaemenid Empire. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (/ˌtɒlɪˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Koinē Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, romanized: Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was an ancient Hellenistic state based in Egypt. At its apex under Ptolemy II, the Ptolemaic navy may have had as many as 336 warships, with Ptolemy II reportedly having at his disposal more than 4,000 ships (including transports and allied vessels). (Columbia Studies in Classical Tradition, Vol. Few mutinies and revolts are recorded, and even rebellious troops would be placated with land grants and other incentives. However, there are many examples of nearly identical sistrums and columns dating all the way to Dynasty 18 in the New Kingdom.  Similarly, units were grouped and equipped based on ethnicity. , To obtain reliable and loyal soldiers, the Ptolemies developed several strategies that leveraged their ample financial resources and even Egypt's historical reputation for wealth; royal propaganda could be evidenced in a line by the poet Theocritus, "Ptolemy is the best paymaster a free man could have". The aforementioned inscription regarding the priests of Mandulis shows that some Nubian leaders at least were paying tribute to the Ptolemaic treasury in this period.  The chief librarian served also as the crown prince's tutor. The Kingdom finally ended in 30 BC when Cleopatra VII died with the Roman conquest of Egypt. A similar scholarly complex was the Museum (Mouseion, "hall of the Muses"). The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt and much of the eastern Mediterranean basin for nearly 300 years. Seleucus II Callinicus kept his throne, but Egyptian fleets controlled most of the coasts of Anatolia and Greece. After Alexander’s death in 323 BC, his empire was divided between his generals. Knowing that she would be taken to Rome to be paraded in Octavian's triumph (and likely executed thereafter), Cleopatra and her handmaidens committed suicide on 12 August 30 BC. (Vollständiges Namen- und Sach-Register ... angefertigt von G. L. 1.1m members in the MapPorn community. Serapis was the patron god of Ptolemaic Egypt, combining the Egyptian gods Apis and Osiris with the Greek deities Zeus, Hades, Asklepios, Dionysos, and Helios; he had powers over fertility, the sun, funerary rites, and medicine. The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. Original cloth, slightly spotted on edges. Work continued for most of the Ptolemaic dynasty; the main temple was finished in the reign of his son, Ptolemy IV, in 212 BC, and the full complex was only completed in 142 BC, during the reign of Ptolemy VIII, while the reliefs on the great pylon were finished in the reign of Ptolemy XII. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. 3 maps. Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far as Babylonia, while his fleets in the Aegean Sea made fresh conquests as far north as Thrace. The Ptolemies therefore limited the number of Greek city-states in Egypt to Alexandria, Ptolemais, and Naucratis.
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